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Family Sketches

Surnames Beginning with "S"

This page was last updated 26 Mar 2016

These family sketches are from Landmarks of Albany County, New York, edited by Amasa J. Parker of Albany, N. Y., Syracuse, N. Y.; D. Mason & Co. Publishers, 1897.

Sabin, Charles H., was born in Williamstown, Mass., August 24, 1868. His father was Thomas Sabin, and his mother, Cordelia Eldridge, was the daughter of Col. Reuben E. Eldridge. The Sabins were early settlers in America, the first coming to America early in the seventeenth century. Charles H. Sabin received his education at Greylock Institute in South Williamstown, Mass., and in 1886 removed to Albany, N. Y. For two and one-half years he was employed in the office of Henry Russell, flour merchant, and for the two years and one-half following, held a clerkship in the National Commercial Bank. He left the latter institution to accept the position of teller in the Park Bank of Albany, which place he filled for five years, and on February 1, 1895, he was appointed cashier of the bank. At the time of his appointment he was the youngest cashier in New York State. Mr. Sabin has been prominently identified with the Ridgefield Athletic Club as treasurer for four years and as captain of the foot ball eleven. He is a member of the Young Men's Association and has been its treasurer for three years; he is also a member of the Fort Orange Club and of the Old Guard, Co. A, 10th Bat., N. G. N. Y.

Sabin, W. B., M. D., was born in 1862, and was a son of Dr. Robert H. Sabin, a well known physician who practiced here for thirty years, previous to his death seven years ago at the age of fifty-six. Dr. Sabin in his chosen profession not only follows that of his father, but also that of his great-grandfather, who was a noted physician of Rockingham, Vt. He began practice in 1882, after graduating from the Albany Medical College and taking a course at New York Post-graduate School. He makes a specialty of the diseases of the eye and the ear, and was at one time associated with Dr. Merrill of Albany, the celebrated specialist. Dr. Sabin is well known in both political and social circles, and is at present one of the school commissioners of West Troy. He is a Mason of the 32d degree and is past master of Evening Star Lodge No. 75, of which he is treasurer. He is also a member of the Albany County Medical Society and of the New York State Medical Association. October 4, 1888, he married Miss Emma L. Dixon of Philadelphia, Pa.; they have one daughter named Edith.

Sanders, Eugene, son of David B., and Elizabeth (Bennis) Sanders, was born in Fort Edward, N. Y., February 8, 1864, and received his education in his native village. In 1889 he came to Albany as traveling salesman for Rogers & Ruso, dealers in typewriters and supplies, and two years later engaged in that business for himself, continuing until the spring of 1894. In 1893 he also engaged in the bicycle and supply trade, and since 1894 has given this his whole attention, handling a number of high grade wheels. He is a member of Temple Lodge, No. 14, F. & A. M., the Ridgefield Athletic Club and the Albany County Wheelmen. In October, 1890, he married Clara R., daughter of Oramel E. Bostwick of Stillwater, N. Y.

Saul, Julius, was born in Prussia, Germany, March 29, 1836, came to this country in October, 1856, and first settled in Catskill, N. Y., where he found employment at his trade of clothing cutting. In May, 1858, he engaged in the merchant tailoring and ready-made clothing business, which he sold out in 1869. In March, 1867, he moved to Troy and engaged in the same business, which he still continues in that city. He removed to New York in 1883 and began the manufacture of clothing and while there, in 1884, established a store in Albany, where he settled in May, 1888. In the latter year he purchased and extensively remodeled the property, Nos. 51-53 North Pearl street, where he has since built up a prosperous business, carrying in stock every article in clothing used from head to foot, by man, woman, and child. In 1893 his sons, Lester J. and Philip C, were admitted to partnership and the manufacturing department was moved from New York to Albany. Mr. Saul is an ex-member of the National Guard, an exempt fireman, a member of King Solomon's Primitive Lodge F. & A. M., and Trojan Lodge I. O. O. F. of Troy. In September, 1864, he married Rachel Cohn, a native of Prussia, Germany. Of their nine children four are living; Lester J., Philip C., Rose (wife of Dr. M. J. Lewi of New York city) and Elka.

Sauter, Louis, Jr., was born in Albany, N. Y., on March 17, 1858, and was educated in the Boy's Academy, of that city. He entered upon his business career at sixteen years of age, learning the drug business with his father, and has ever since remained in that business, buying out his father's interest in 1894, at which time Mr. Sauter, Sr., retired. Louis is a practicalbusinessman and has been eminently successful. In 1880, he was united in marriage with Miss Minnie Leyboldt, a daughter of Fred Leyboldt, the leader of the 12th Regiment Band of New York City, and they have two children. Mr. Sauter is a member of the local K. P. and of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 3, F. & A. M., of Albany.

Saxton, Thomas, born at Saratoga Springs. November 18, 1801, son of Nathaniel and Susan (Smith) Saxton. Nathaniel Saxton came from Long Island to Saratoga Springs, where he was a farmer. He spent his last days with his son, Reuben, in Port Byron, Cayuga county, where he died, aged eighty-nine years and eleven months. At fourteen years of age Thomas Saxton came to South Westerlo to live with an uncle, Thomas Smith, and was a clerk in his store. He remained with his uncle until he was twenty-three years of age, when he bought property in the village, erected a dwelling and engaged in mercantile business, which he followed until 1869, when he sold to R.S. Cryne and Mr. Lockwood. After retiring from mercantile business he turned his attention to farming, which he followed until his death, which occurred in 1890 at the age of twenty-eight. He was a Republican and a very strong temperance man and was for two years supervisor of Westerlo and justice for a number of years. In 1836 he married Sally Baker, who died February 21, 1860, and he married again, April 7, 1862, Sarah V. Cryne, who still survives him, and gives this information. Mr. Saxton was a liberal contributor to all churches, and was a member of Masonic order. Mrs. Saxton's parents were John and Sarah (Van Vorihas) Cryne, of Dutchess county. He was a farmer and shoemaker. He came to Schodack where he married, and his wife died 1838; he then removed to Westerlo, where he engaged in the shoe and tanning business. He went to Wisconsin and engaged in farming, where he died 1876 at the age of eighty-eight. He was a Republican in politics and a Presbyterian in religion.

Sayles, William, for twenty-three years one of the leading contractors of Albany, is a son of Thomas and Jane (Stephan) Sayles, and was born on the Isle of Man, May 25, 1848. He was educated in private schools and learned the trade of carpenter and joiner in his native country, noted in recent years as the scene of Hall Caine's thrilling romances. Mr. Sayles came to America in 1867, arriving in New York city April 24, and the following day reached Albany, where he has since resided. He followed his trade as a journeyman until January, 1873, when he formed a copartnership with William H. Gick, under the firm name of Gick & Sayles, and engaged in contracting and building. This firm has steadily increased the volume of its operations, until now it is one of the leading concerns of the kind in the city. They have erected about 300 buildings in Albany, among them the Albany County Bank, Dudley Observatory, Albany Safe Deposit and Storage Block, the Hope Baptist church, St. Peter's Rectory and the residences of Messrs. Wing, Russell, Rudd, Murphy, Gregory, Fuller, Waldman, Barber and Reynolds, on State Street, of George W. Van Slyke, Hon. John Palmer and Benjamm Lodge on Madison Avenue, of Mann, Waldman and Tracey on Willett Street; of Mrs. Craig in Englewood Place; of Ogden, Kinnear and Rooker on Lake Avenue; the brown stone row on Lancaster street between Lark and Willett, and a great many other dwellings, public buildings, etc., of equal prominence. They have also built a large number of handsome structures outside the city of Albany and are well known throughout a wide territory. Mr. Sayles is a staunch Republican, and in May, 1895, was appointed by Mayor O. E. Wilson one of the city assessors for a term of three years. He is a member of Ancient City Lodge, No. 452, F. & A. M. He is a member and for ten years was a trustee of the First M. E. church. November 27, 1878, he married Ellen Elizabeth, daughter of the late William W. Pearl of Albany county, and they have three children: Arthur Everett, Agnes Pearl and Mabel Margaret.

Schaefer, Frederick William, Ph. G., son of Philip and Margaret (Rau) Schaefer, was born in Albany, N. Y., September 23, 1866. He attended public school No. 12, from which he was graduated at the age of thirteen and spent one year in the High School. He then went into the employ of his brother, a druggist and pharmacist at No. 245 Central avenue, as clerk and remained with him until he graduated from the Albany College of Pharmacy, March 8, 1887. After his graduation Mr. Schaefer accepted the position of head clerk in William R. Laird's pharmacy in Jersey City, N. J., where he remained two years. He thereupon returned to Albany and on October 10, 1891, succeeded his brother as proprietor of the pharmacy at No. 245 Central avenue. January 18, 1896, Mr. Schaefer moved his present handsome store to No. 251 Central avenue, where he carries on a successful business. He is a mem- ber of Guttenburg Lodge No. 737, F. & A. M., Mountaineer Lodge No. 321, I. O. O. F., New York Encampment No. 1 and Grand Canton Memo No. 1, P. M. I. O. O. F. He is also the historian of the Alumni Association of the Albany College of Pharmacy. January 18, 1893, he married Elizabeth Henkes, and they have one son, Frederick J.

Scharbauer, Philip, was born in Bethlehem in 1855 and is a son of Ferdinand, who came from Germany. Mr. Scharbauer began life as a poor boy and for some years clerked in a store in Albany and South Bethlehem. He began business for himself in 1879 by opening a store at South Bethlehem, which he continued until 1893. He was also engaged in buying and shipping hay and other farm products. In 1894 he opened a hardware store at Newburgh and later started two branch stores, one at Matteawan and one at Poughkeepsie. In 1895 he was made secretary and treasurer of the Calbanen Road Improvement Company, and now devotes his time to that office, having a manager for his store business.

Schifferdecker, Fred A., son of Frederick and Anna (Rapp) Schifferdecker, was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1860. He received his education at Professor Myer's Select School on Madison avenue. After leaving school he occupied a clerkship in the grocery store of Henry McBride for two years and subsequently spent five years in the law office of the late Hon. Galen R. Hitt. Mr. Schifferdecker then worked for his father until 1887, when he and his brother Charles F. formed a copartnership to engage in the ice business, in which they have been very successful, handling about twenty thousand tons of ice a year. Mr. Schifferdecker has been prominent in politics, having been a member of the Board of Supervisors for four years. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., K. of P., Mount Vernon Lodge No. 3, F. & A. M., and of many German singing societies. He is also a member of the Empire Steam Yacht Club and is president of the Schifferdecker Association. In 1885 he married Louise R. Heidrick of Albany, and they have five children: Edna, Dora, Anna, Charles and Louise.

Scherer, Hon. Robert G., was born in Albany, March 20, 1861, his father being George Scherer, a prominent merchant well known for his extensive influence among his German fellow citizens and his activity in all matters pertaining to their interests. Mr. Scherer entered the public schools and was also for some time under the instruction of Prof. Carl Meyer; he also received a thorough business education. He entered the law office of Messrs. Paddock, Draper & Chester (composed of Recorder William S. Paddock, Andrew S. Draper, now president of the Illinois State University, and Judge Alden Chester) and remained as a clerk during the existence of the firm. After taking a course at Cornell University, he entered Columbia Law School. On his admission to the bar he formed a partnership with John F. Montignani, which continued several years; he is now senior member of the law firm of Scherer & Downs. Mr. Scherer has been connected with many important litigations, among which may be mentioned the McPherson Collateral Tax Matter (104 N. Y., 306), decided ultimately by the Court of Appeals, which became the leading case on the subject; he was also counsel in the noted case People vs. Gilson (109 N. Y., 389), in which the Court of Appeals unanimously sustained Mr. Scherer's views. His management of the Milwain $20,000 bond robbery and his conduct of the Greer Will cases to a successfull issue are well known. The Bender Will Case and the extensive assignments of Ward and Byrnes, Nelson, Lyon, and Sullivan & Ehlers are among others of importance; he was also connected with the Appell impeachment proceedings before the judiciary committee of the Assembly in 1895 and secured the acquittal of Judge Appell. In politics Mr. Scherer has always been a Republican, and in 1889 made a creditable run for surrogate. From 1885 to 1889 he was a member of the Board of Public Instruction and introduced many reforms in the school system. He was a member of the State Legislature in 1896 and 1897; in 1886 he served in the judiciary committee and the committee on codes, and in 1897 was chairman of the judiciary committee. Mr. Scherer is a member of the Fort Orange Club and of the committee on law reform of the State Bar Association. In 1883 he married Anna, daughter of James T. Story of Albany, and they have one daughter, Grace M.

Schneider, Charles N., son of Peter and Caroline (Hans) Schneider, was born in Albany, N. Y., March 6, 1869. Mr. Schneider is one of Albany's ablest mtisicians and inherits all those distinguishing traits that marked the career of his father, who was a music teacher and organist in St. Mary's church. Mr. Schneider attended the Christian Brothers' Academy and graduated from that institution in 1887. He studied music with his father and with Professor Monchel, organist of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. It was not long, however, before his ability was recognized; from September, 1889, to November, 1891, he was organist of St. Mary's church at Sandy Hill, N. Y., and during the year 1893 held the same position in St. John's church, Albany. Mr. Schneider was bookkeeper for four years for the piano firm of Boardman & Gray, from 1892 to 1896. As a writer, Mr. Schneider has displayed great ability and genius; very few of his productions have been played before the public, but of those that have, too much can not be said of the opera "Enid," the music of which he finished in 1894. The opera was produced in Albany in January, 1897, and in Troy, February 1, of the same year. Another production was given in Albany, February 23, as a testimonial to the composer, Mr. Schneider, and to the librettist, David J. Norton. The music of "Enid" is sure to last and remind its hearers of the author, Albany's young musical genius, Charles N. Schneider. February 18, 1896, Mr. Schneider married Mary Elizabeth Hopkins of Sandy Hill, N. Y.

Schubert, Theodore, a popular and well-known citizen of West Troy, was born in Saxony, Germany, in 1855. He was a son of a weaver, Charles G. Schubert. They came to America in 1804 and settled at Holyoke, Mass., where Theodore learned the woolsorting trade, and in 1878 came here as a weaver in the Roy Mills, and later as a loom adjuster. In 1885 he opened a cafe and retail saloon at 1,399 Broadway. Mr. Schubert is prominently connected with numerous local societies, the West Troy Fire Department, president of the local board of Wine and Liquor Dealers' Association and member of Laurel Lodge, I. O. O. F.

Shultes, Abram, a landmark and well known citizen of Berne, was born in Berne (now Knox) March, 1827. The parent tree of the Shultes family in America was Mathias (Mottise) Shultes, who was born in Holland in 1726, his father being killed the same year by religious persecutors, the mother fearful that her own life and the life of her child might also be sacrificed, fled to America with her babe, when he was but six months of age. She settled in the woods (probably in Schoharie county) among her Dutch friends and there reared her boy to manhood. He later became one of the first settlers in the town of Berne and from time to time took up 400 acres of land, made him a home and cared for his mother until the time of her death. He fought Indians during the French and Indian war from 1754 to 1763, and fought Tories and Indians during the war of the Revolution. During this war, the Indians and Tories were determined to kill him and many a time he was obliged to seek shelter in the woods, to escape from their attacks. His son William was lieutenant of a regiment during the Revolutionary war. He reared six sons and several daughters. Lieut. Wm. Shultes, the grandfather of Abram, was a native of Berne, where he was a farmer. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war and died when forty-five years of age. His wife was a Miss Post, daughter of the notorious tory Jacob Post, and they had four children. For his second wife he married Miss Sternberger, by whom two children were born. Peter W. Shultes, Abram's father, was born on the homestead in 1801. He came in possession of one of his father's farms and succeeded in accumulating a large property and at the time of his death was worth $40,000. His wife was Magdalene West, daughter of Peter and granddaughter of the celebrated artist Sir William West and they had twelve children, but only five grew to, maturity. He died in 1853 and his wife survived him many years and died at the home of her son, Abram. Abram Shultes attended the the common district school and took an academic course at the Gallupville Academy. When nineteen years of age he began teaching, this he followed about six months of the year for several years, when he settled on the homestead, where he remained until forty years of age, when the farm was sold and divided among the heirs; he then bought his present farm of 160 acres on West Mountain and moved there in 1867 and he owns another farm of 120 acres in the town of Rensselaerville. In 1855 he married Margaret Turner, born in England and a daughter of George and Dorotha (Potter) Turner, who came to America with his family in 1832. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Shultes are Florence (wife of Wallace R. Peasley), George D., De Forest, Mary, Alice, Joseph T., Charles A., William J., Margaret and Susan E. George, Joseph and William are now in Cortez Valley, Nevada, in the silver mines. George Turner, father of Mrs. Shultes, was born in England in 1772. He was a farmer and cartman, carting coal principally. He settled in Berne on West Mountain in 1832 and died October 10, 1833. His wife, Dorothy, was born in 1786 and died December 15, 1838 and they had eight children: George, Margaret, Joseph Jonathan, Elizabeth, Mary, Susan and Leah.

Schultes, J. B., was born in Albany county, March 16, 1840, and is a son of Paul and Anna E. (Bogardus) Schultes, born in Berne and a son of Adam, a son of one of the earliest settlers of the town of Berne, where he and the grandfather of J. B. died. The father has been a farmer and a saw mill man. He died in 1886, and his wife died in 1890. J. B. was reared on a farm and educated in Berne. He located in Rensselaerville and engaged in the saw and cider mill business. In 1866 he married Miss Elizabeth E. Snyder of Berne, and has one son, Arthur, who was educated in Rensselaerville.

Schutter, William L., M. D., son of Louis and Margaret (Shepard) Schutter, was born in Albany, N. Y., December 31, 1863. He received his education in the public schools and Albany High School and in the fall of 1879 entered the Albany Medical College, from which he received the degree of M. D. in March, 1883. Since graduation Dr. Schutter has practiced in Albany, making a specialty of diseases of women and children. He was district physician during the mayoralty of Edward A. Maher. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society, Mount Hermon Lodge I. O. O. F., and Flower Lodge, Knights of Pythias. June 20, 1888, he married Jessie H., daughter of John and Sarah Eaton of Albany.

Schuyler, Richard P. The domicile inhabited by this gentleman and his family is one of the historic landmarks of Albany county; situated at Port Schuyler, near West Troy, it stands a mute reminder of the generations of Schuylers it has sheltered. Partially destroyed by fire, it has been rebuilt, but not essentially modernized and retains some quaint specimens of old Dutch handiwork. Richard P. Schuyler, son of the late Stephen R. Schuyler, was born here in 1847. A daughter, Miss Jennie D. Schuyler, an able writer, who values high the traditions of her family, will contribute to this work some notes upon their genealogy. From a moss-grown stone in the Schuyler Cemetery, near by, we quote verbatim: "In memory of Col. Philip Schuyler, a gentleman who was emproved in several public enployments. in which he acted with integrity. He was singularly hospitable, a sincere friend, a kind master, and most tender husband. He lived respected, and died greatly lamented, February 16, 1758, aged sixty-two years."

Schuyler, Stephen, is a lineal descendant of Peter Schuyler, the first mayor of Albany. Stephen Schuyler was born at Port Schuyler April 2, 1851. His father, John Cayler Schuyler, was born at the old home in 1801, and died in 1882. He was one of the most prominent men of these parts. We cannot do better than to quote from a memorial engrossed by the society of the South Park Reformed church, which was founded here in 1844, and to which he was always officially related: "His knowledge of affairs in his own town was almost encyclopedic. He possessed a culture, courtesy, spirit, and a presence, that marked him a gentleman of the old school." He was elder in his church for about thirty years, and was also clerk and treasurer. In 1828 he married his cousin, Anna Maria Schuyler, who bore him ten children, of whom four are now living: Philip, Stephen, Anna and Gertrude. Mr. [sic] Schuyler died in 1886, surviving her husband only four years. In the public life of the old town of Watervliet, John Cayler Schuyler was a prominent figure, representing the town in the board of supervisors from 1833 to 1837 and in 1853. In 1836 he was elected to the Assembly. Stephen Schuyler now lives at the old home where he was born. In the front hall hangs a portrait of Peter Schuyler, executed in 1710 by Sir Godfrey Kneeler, the court painter of Queen Anne.

Scott, Jacob C. E., is of Scotch and Holland Dutch descent, his great-great-grandfather, John Scott, of New York, being a soldier in the Revolutionary war. John, son of the latter, 1763-1817, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, married Deborah, daughter of Jacob Klock and settled in Coeymans. Jacob Scott, son of the last John, was a resident of Albany, born 1793, died 1877, and served in the war of 1813. He married Susan Varian Smith, cousin of Isaac L. Varian, mayor of New York and State senator. William J. Scott, son of Jacob, was born in New Baltimore, N. Y., in 1817, and has spent his active life in Albany as a gun manufacturer and dealer, of the old firm of W. J. & R. H. Scott. He was for many years prominent in Democratic politics and was foreman of Steamer No. 11 of the Volunteer Fire Department. He married Martha Jane Waters, who died in 1880, leaving six children who survive her. Jacob C. E. Scott, son of William J., born in Albany, January 13, 1865, was graduated from the Albany High School in 1884, spent some time at Cornell University and finally entered the employ of the Morning Express, becoming successively reporter, exchange editior, editor of the Sunday edition and assistant associate editor. While discharging these duties he attended the Albany Law School, registering as a law student with Hon. John C. Nott, and received the degree of LL. B. in 1889. He spent one year as law reporter on the Albany Argus and in 1890 became private secretary and chief clerk to Mayor Manning, which position he held four years. In 1892 he also began the practice of law and since 1894 has given his whole time to his profession. In 1894 he was appointed a police commissioner and has since been the secretary of the Board of Police. He was president of the Albany High School Alumni Association in 1895-96. In 1891 he married Irene, daughter of John Weller Embler, of Walden, Orange county.

Secor, Benjamin M., of Huguenot descent, was born October 27, 1834, in the town of Berne, Albany county, where his father, Daniel, was born October 18, 1804. Daniel Secor, a Revolutionary soldier, settled in Berne about 1780 and died there; his son Cornelius lived and died there and was a colonel in the State militia. Daniel, son of Cornelius, married Cornelia Van Zandt and died June 22, 1879. Benjamin M. Secor was reared on a farm and received his education in his native town and Warnerville Seminary. He remained on the farm and clerked in country stores until 1866, when he came to Albany and engaged in the retail clothing business with L. D. Hutchins. In 1870 he became a clerk for R. C. Davis & Co. and so continued till January, 1878, when he entered the employ of the late C. G. Craft; January, 1890, he became a partner in the firm of C. G. Craft & Co. Mr. Craft died March 13, 1890, and since then Mr. Secor and Joseph D. Chapin have continued the business under the old firm name. Mr. Secor is vice-president in the Albany, Helderberg and Schoharie Railway Company, member of Temple Lodge, F. & A. M., and has lived in the Thirteenth ward about thirty years. In 1858 he married Arvilla Strevell of Berne, and they have five children; Effie J., Elva, Laura M., Daniel and Ida A.

Seelmann, Andrew G., was born in Albany, N.Y., May 6, 1861. His parents were George and Rosa (Drach) Seelmann, natives of Germany. Mr. Seelmann was educated in the Holy Cross School and Christian Brothers' Academy of Albany and took an evening course at the Albany Business College. After finishing his education he entered the law office of Wickes & Gutmann and while there was admitted to the bar in 1882. June 8, 1885, he was appointed superintendent of the money order department at the Albany post-oftice and held the position until March 1, 1890. He then opened a law office at No. 93 State street and later moved to No. 69 State street, where he is now located. In 1891 Mr. Seelmann was clerk to the Assembly Committee on Judiciary and Codes, and in 1892 was clerk to the Committee on Judiciary and Railroads. He was president of the German Lyceum during its existence and was one of the organizers and is now president of the German Young Men's Democratic Club. He is a member of the executive committee of the Democratic Association of Albany county and is also a member of the Democratic Phalanx, the Catholic Union and the C. B. A. Alumni. His business is chiefly real estate law, and Surrogate's Court practice.

Selkirk, Alexander, oldest son of Charles and Jane (Elmendorf) Selkirk and brother of Lewis M. and Frank, was born at Selkirk, Albany county, N. Y., July 18, 1830. On the paternal side he descended from James Selkirk, who emigrated from Kirkcudbright, Scotland, and landed at the city of New York June 16, 1775, then went to Galway, Saratoga county, where he resided until the early spring of 1776; when at Albany, he joined the Continental army in which he served until the close of the Revolutionary war, when he received his certificate of service and discharge duly signed by George Washington (now in the Hall of Military Records, Albany). He served under Arnold in the northern campaign and was in the battle of Saratoga, at which Burgoyne surrendered; under Green, he was in the retreat through New Jersey, and endured the hardships of the winter quarters of the army at Valley Forge; subsequently under Gates, he was in the southern, campaign until after Gates's defeat at Camden, and later with his regiment in the allied army he was at Yorktown, Va., when Cornwallis surrendered. After the close of the war he took up his residence at Galway until he finally settled in 1786 at Selkirk, Albany county, N. Y., on land purchased by him and now owned by his descendants. He died in 1830. In 1787 he married Elizabeth, sister of Christinia Herrin, wife of William Henry, and mother of Prof. Joseph Henry, late secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. On the maternal side Mr. Selkirk is descended from the Elmendorfs, who came from Guilderland, Holland, and settled in Dutchess county in 1690. Their descendants were numerous and in active service in both the rank and file of the Continental army. Alexander's father, Charles, was born at Selkirk, 1799, and was in his early life a silversmith at Albany, but on account of poor health and his inheritance of a farm from his father, James, he in 1820 returned to the life of a farmer at Selkirk, where he died in 1868. Alexander, with his brothers, received his education in public school No. 3, at Selkirk; his teachers being generally men from the Eastern States who made school teaching a means to aid them in acquiring collegiate education, and under this class of teachers he was instructed in the highest English branches of education of that day. He removed to Albany in 1847 and at J. Goold & Co.'s coach factory learned the art of coach ornamentation and heraldry, and was made foreman in that department in 1850. In 1849 he with George Boughton, then also a coach ornamenter, James Hart and James Williamson formed a class for the study of free hand drawing from models with Mr. John E. Gavit, bank note engraver, as instructor. In the spring of 1853 he went into the business of carriage manufacture and continued in the same until in 1864, when he sold out to Shaw & Rose, and entered the profession of solicitor and attorney in pat- ent cases and mechanical expert, and has since continued in this profession, having established a large practice. Mr. Selkirk joined Union Lodge of I. O. O. F., in 1853, and Wadsworth Lodge 417, of F. and A. M., in 1857, and the Ancient Essenic Order in 1897. In 1848 he united with the Wesleyan M. church and was identified with it until 1863, when he united with the Fourth Presbyterian church of Albany, of which he is now a member. He has always been a Republican, voting first for Fremont. He married Elizabeth Jane Fee in 1853, and they have five sons: Charles, William F., John A., Alexander, Jr., Frank E., and a daughter, Elizabeth R. With other citizens he opposed the 1894 scheme for supplying Albany with water from the Berkshire Hills, and so amended the Water Commissioners' Bill before the Legislature that that board dropped their bill, while bills drawn by him and introduced through Senator Parker passed both Houses, when the Berkshire Hill supply scheme was dropped and his plans for water supply, except filtering, also advocated by him, were adopted substantially as was provided in his bills. In 1896, he through Senator Nussbaum, introduced a bill for making a State Excise department with provision for State control of the traffic in liquors, which bill was before its introduction in the two houses, some ten days in the hands of Senator Raines, who then amended his own bill previously introduced and incorporated in it many of the provisions of Mr. Selkirk's bill. Mr. Selkirk is the inventor of the "System of dual circulation of chemical cooking liquors for making chemical fibre; " he also is the original inventor of closed electric conduits, of the class made water-tight and completed in sections, in a factory, and ready for laying in the ground, or at its surface, with its enclosed conductors at all times in condition for allowing electric currents to be taken, at will, therefrom with safety at any time, thereby dispensing with exposed or overhead conductors.

Selkirk, William, was born in 1828 and is the son of Robert and grandson of James Selkirk, who came from Scotland and settled at what is now Selkirk Station, where he died leaving six sons: Robert, Charles, Francis, James, William and John. Robert Selkirk remained on the homestead as a farmer, and was for twenty years one of the assessors of the town. He died in 1870 leaving four sons: James. John, Jacob and William, who has been assessor for eighteen years and still holds that office.

Sessions, Charles E., and Lewis E. Sessions, are residents of Cohoes for half a century and are sons of the late John B. Sessions, who by trade was a mason and who came here in 1847. Charles E. was born in Troy in 1842, and in his early years worked in the Harmony Mills. Lewis E. was born in 1846 in Troy, and in his early years was a butcher. In 1859 Philip, an elder brother, established the business at the present location.

Settle, Theodore, was born in the village of Berne, February 24, 1846. The great- grandfather of Theodore Settle migrated to America from Berne, Switzerland, and was one of the pioneer settlers in the town of Berne (now Knox). Jacob Settle, the grandfather of Theodore, was a native of the town of Knox. He was a harness-maker by trade, which he followed throughout his active life. His last years were spent in the village of Berne. He married a Miss Hochstrasser, and they had five children. The father of Theodore Settle, Jacob Settle, Jr., was born in the town of Berne in 1792. His parents being poor his education was very limited, and when a boy he was apprenticed to a Dr. Hubbell to learn the mercantile business and also was to study medicine; the failure of the doctor to remain in business left him without a place, but he found other employment and in 1811 was taken in as a partner in the store business by Col. Johan Jost Deitz. From 1811 to 1864 he was engaged in the mercantile business, building up a trade second to none in the town. He represented his district in the Assembly, served as supervisor, justice and town clerk, was for thirty-five years postmaster, and several years commissioner and inspector of common schools. May 7, 1818, he was appointed by Gov. De Witt Clinton cornetist of the 5th Regt. Cav. of the State of New York, in 1831 was commissioned as captain, in 1824 was appointed major of the 31st Regt. and in 1825 was raised to the position of lieutenant-colonel. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity. His wife was Cornelia R., daughter of Minor Walden, who was one of the pioneers in Berne, coming from Vermont about 1809. Theodore Settle received his education in the common schools and spent his early life in assisting in his father's store. When nineteen years old he engaged as clerk for his brother Charles, who had succeeded the father in business. After seven years he succeeded his brother and has since done a very successful business. Mr. Settle has served as town clerk two terras, postmaster eight years, and was one of the organizers of an Odd Fellows' lodge in Berne, which after twenty years was abandoned. He is treasurer of the Albany, Helderberg and Schoharie Railroad. In 1890 Mr. Settle married Kate L., who was born in Guilderland and is a daughter of Jacob and Alida (Hallenbeck) Mann. They have one child, Howard E.

Severence, Matthias J., Jr., born in Albany, November 6, 1861, is the eldest son of Col. Matthias J. Severence, who was born on the Moselle River in Germany in 1837, and has lived in the capital city since he was two and a half years old. Colonel Severence was for many years engaged in the grocery and mineral water business, was connected with the old Volunteer Fire Department and State militia, and in 1861 became lieutenant of Co. H, 43d N. Y. Vols., in which he served two years during the Rebellion of 1861 to 1865. Later he was made captain of Co. H, 35th Regt. N. G. S. N. Y., and was promoted colonel. He is connected with all the German singing and several fraternal societies of Albany, and was one of the marshals of the Great German Jubilee in 1871, and of "All Nations" day during the Albany bicentennial celebration in 1886. He has been a brigadier-general of the Uniformed Rank K. of P., was commander of Post 5, G. A. R., was the independent candidate for sheriff in 1884, served as supervisor of the old Tenth ward several years, and is now connected with the Albany Brewing Company. His first wife, Margaret C. McGuinness, died in 1875, leaving six children; Matthias J., Jr., being the third. He married, a second wife, Mrs. Ophelia (Nichols) Haney. Matthias J. Severence, Jr. was educated in the public and German private schools and academy of Albany, read law with Nathan P. Hinman and Hon. Simon O Rosendale, and was graduated from the Albany Law School and admitted to the bar in 1889, being in the mean time deputy property clerk under Mayor Swinburne. He practiced for a time in the offices of Hinman & Farren and Reilly & Hamilton, served three years as an examiner in the State Banking Department under Charles M. Preston, and in November, 1890, was elected judge of the city court for a term of four years from January 1, 1896. He is a Democrat, a past chancellor of Columbia Lodge K. of P. and a past captain of the Sons of Veterans, the L O. Red Men, trustee of the Elks, Lodge No. 49. and several German singing societies. He was aide-de camp with rank of lieutenant-colonel on the staff of Leland J. Webb, commander-in-chief of the Sons of Veterans of the United States. January 28, 1891, he married Margaret C, daughter of the late Charles Kirchner of Albany, and they have one child, Marguerite Annette Severence.

Shaffer, Edwin C., was born in Gallupville, Schoharie county, N. Y., April 30, 1845. His parents were born in Schoharie county. N. Y.; his ancestors on his father's side (Shaffer and Weidman) were of Holland and German descent, and on his mother's side (Possone and West) were of English and French descent, and some of them served in the Revolutionary war. When the subject of this sketch was seven years old his parents moved to Schoharie village, where he was educated in the public school and Schoharie Academy. At twelve years of age he engaged as clerk in a general merchandise store in Schoharie, where he remained two years. He then went as clerk in the Schoharie county clerk's office and in 1861 removed to Albany, N. Y., where he obtained a situation as bookkeeper in a wholesale grocery house. In 1863 he accepted a position in the office of the paymaster-general of the State of New York and was there until the close of Governor Seymour's administration. Mr. Shaffer was an active member of the Albany Burgesses Corps for several years and was elected financial secretary three consecutive years. In the spring of 1865 Mr. Shaffer was appointed assistant paymaster of the New York Central Railroad, which position he retained until 1871, when he was appointed to a clerkship in the office of Governor Hoffman, where he remained until the latter's term of office expired in 1873. He then engaged with the D. & H. Co.'s railroad as traveling auditor and continued in that position until March 1, 1882, when he resigned to accept the position of general agent, at Albany, of the People's Line of Steamers, which position he now holds, having been in charge of the Albany end of the line for fifteen years. Mr. Shaffer is also a member of the Albany Club. In 1869 he married Fannie Augusta Jenkins, daughter of George Jenkins of Albany. Mrs. Shaffer was born in the old State Capitol, her father having been superintendent of the old Capitol for many years.

Shanks, Charles S., son of David W. and Anna R. (Seath) Shanks, was born in Albany, September 8, 1857. David W. Shanks was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1825, came to America in 1846 and settled in Albany, where he conducted an upholstering business till his death in 1877. He was captain of what is now Co. D, 10th Battalion, a member of the old Albany Beverwyck Club and a Mason. Charles S. Shanks was educated in the Albauy public schools, became a clerk for Archibald McClure & Co., and later for his father, and in 1875 entered the employ of Benjamin Lodge, merchant tailor, with whom he remained until 1889, when he formed a partnership with Charles H. Lathrop, under the firm name of Shanks & Lathrop; they purchased Mr. Lodge's business and now carry on a large merchant tailoring trade. Mr. Shanks enlisted in Co. B, 10th Regiment, in 1878, was promoted by gradation to first lieutenant and was honorably discharged in 1885. He was elected treasurer of the Y. M. A. in 1884 and is now one of the board of managers. For two years he was president of the Albany Wheelmen, which is now the A. C. W. In 1884 he married Frances C. E., daughter of William Gemmell, of Jersey City, N. J., and they have one daughter, Margaretta G.

Shaw, Andrew, son of John and Elizabeth (Moore) Shaw, was born in Albany, N. Y., October 12, 1846. He is of Scotch ancestry, his father having come from Scotland to America in 1836. Mr. Shaw received his education in the public schools and in Prof. Lawson's Classical Institute, after which he started to learn the plumber's trade with Edward Kearney, with whom he remained one year. In 1864 he enlisted in Co. A, 91st N. Y. Regt. N. Y. Vols. March 31, 1865, he lost an arm at the battle of Gravelly Run, Va., which necessitated his returning to Albany, where he remained in Harris Hospital three months. In 1868 Mr. Shaw was made tallyman at the building of the stock yards at West Albany. After a short time he obained a situation as gate keeper at the Capitol building, then just commenced. From there he went into the employ of the Albany Gas Light Company, where he served as valveman for twenty years. In March, 1888, he resigned that position and formed a partnership for carrying on the coal business, with William L. Dresser, of Lee, Mass. They located at No. 150 Grand street. Subsequently Mr. Dresser sold his share to William McArdle, and for two years the firm was Shaw & McArdle. In 1894 Mr. McArdle withdrew and since that time Mr. Shaw has conducted the business. He is a member of the Unconditional Club, Lew Benedict Post No. 5 G. A. R., and the Jackson Corps. He was married m 1886, his wife being Maude C. Chamberlain, of Morris, Otsego county, N. Y. They have one son, William Reid Shaw.

Sheehan, Daniel, was born in County Limerick. Ireland, in 1828. When about twenty years of age he crossed the ocean, and soon made his way to West Troy; nearly half a century has elapsed since he made his home here. Mr. Sheehan has been a hard-working and industrious citizen and has acquired a competence by his own toil and economy.

Sheppey, John V., M. D., son of Alonzo N. and Charlotte (Benedict) Sheppey, was born in Ogdensburgh, N. Y., in 1859. On the maternal side, Dr. Sheppey is descended from the Van Derwaters, who were among the first settlers of Schenectady, N. Y. He attended the public schools and was graduated from the Rugby Academy at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1880. He entered the Jefferson Medical College in 1882 and in 1885 received the degree of M. D. from that institution. Dr. Sheppey did hospital work for one and a half years and after two years spent in Ohio, he opened an office in Albany, N. Y., where he has since practiced. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society and assistant at electrocutions to the physician at Dannemora. He married Lina Craig of Ulster county, and they have four children, Elsie C., Margaret, Esther and Dorothy.

Shields, Francis, son of Adam, was born in Albany in 1822. Adam Shields, who was born in Ireland in 1798, came to America in 1819 and settled in Albany, where he entered the employ of Levi Solomon, a well known tobacconist. In 1833 he formed a partnership with Samuel Townsend, as Townsend & Shields and engaged in the manufacture of tobacco. On Mr. Townsend's death, which occurred in 1836, Mr. Shields formed a partnership with Charles Chapman and William Taylor, under the name of Chapman, Shields & Taylor, and continued until 1840, when Mr. Shields withdrew. In 1850, with Daniel Adams, under the style of Shields & Adams, he started the present tobacco manufacturing business of Francis Shields in Church street. Mr. Adams withdrew in 1860 and Mr. Shields's son Francis became a partner under the name of Shields & Son; this continued until 1880, when Mr. Shields retired. He died in 1888 and since that year the business has been successfully conducted by Francis Shields, and is the largest tobacco manufactory in the city.

Shiland, John C., M. D., is the son of Dr. Alexander Shiland, a prominent physician of West Troy until his death in 1886. The latter was well known for his professional standing throughout the county, and was health officer for many years. Dr. J. C. Shiland was born at Waterford in 1855, and was one year old when his father began practice here. He was educated at Troy High School and entered Albany Medical College in 1875, graduating in 1878. He had occupied many clerical positions before beginning his profession. Dr. Shiland made a special research into the diseases of the eye and ear, but his practice now is that of a general nature. He is very devoted to his labor and has been successful; he is also very popular outside of his profession.

Shine James H., is emphatically a self-made man, owing the important social and political status he occupies to his own exertions and character. He was born at Waterford, N. Y., in 1846, of humble parentage. The exigencies of life took him out of school when but twelve years old, and thenceforward he was a man among men. In early life various occupations on the canals, farming labor, and the cooper's trade received successive attention. In 1864 he enlisted in the 16th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, and saw nearly two years' service. Mr. Shine was canal weighmaster from 1874 to 1880, and collector of canal statistics from 1882 to 1890. From 1885 to 1890 he was engaged in the manufacture of knit goods at Valley Falls, N. Y. While a resident of Waterford he served as trustee of the village, and as supervisor for three years. In 1891 he assumed his present position as manager of Hope Knitting Mills at Cohoes. In 1896 he was appointed a member of the Public Improvement Commission of the city of Cohoes.

Sill, John De Friest, was born in the town of Bethlehem, Albany county, November 10, 1853. He is a son of Francis Nicoll who was born March 18, 1818, and who removed to Albany in 1854 and established himself in the coal business on the cor- ner of Grand and Hamilton streets. He represented his ward at different times as alderman and supervisor and for a long time prior to his death was president of the Albany County Bank. He died August 23, 1895. Mr. Sill's ancestors all possessed that superior type of manhood that shows itself so plainly in the characters of their descendants. Coming as he does from such a worthy line of ancestors we will mention them in their order: John Sill left England in 1637 and located in Cambridge, Mass., about eighteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. Joseph, son of John, was born in England in 1636, and was the father of Joseph 2d (born January 6, 1678) who married Phebe Lord of Lyme, Conn. Next in the order of descent is Lieut. John Sill who was born February 14, 1710, and died October 17, 1796. He was a farmer at Lyme, Conn., and served in the Revolution. Silas 4th son of Lieut. John, was born November 17, 1749, and died October 26, 1811. He was a tanner and shoemaker residing at Silltown, Conn., and was the father of Maj. Richard Sill of Albany, who was an officer of the Revolutionary army and served as an aid to Lord Sterling. Judge William N. Sill of Bethlehem. Albany county, was a son of Major Richard and the father of Francis Nicoll Sill, and grandfather of John D. Sill the subject of this sketch, who is also a direct descendant of the Van Rensselaers and Nicolls, two of the most prominent and influential families in the early history of the State. His mother was Elizabeth Ann, daughter of John De Friest of Greenbush, N. Y She was descended from an old family of Knickerbockers living in and near Schaghticoke, N. Y. John D. Sill was educated at the Albany Normal School and Albany Business College and in 1872 went to the Albany County Bank as clerk where he rapidly rose to the position of teller. In 1881 Isaiah Page and Francis N. Sill bought the D. S. Woods Malleable Iron Works and John D. Sill left the County Bank to become the manager of the foundry, which position he now holds, but since his father's death he has acquired his interest. Mr. Sill is a member of the Albany Club. In 1875 he was married to Charlotte A. Farrington of Newburgh, N. Y. They have one one daughter, Florence K.

Silliman, Rev. George Dent, D. D., rector of Grace church, corner of Clinton avenue and Robin street, was born at Hobart, Delaware county, N. Y., March 23, 1841. His father was Ebenezer Silliman, who married Ann Sturgess, 1837. The family is of Connecticut origin, from one Daniel Silliman, who settled at Holland Hill, two miles from Fairfield, in 1658; he was from Lucca, Italy, having lived at Geneva, Switzerland. In ancient deeds his ancestor is called Lord Claude Sillimandi. Among the ancestors in Connecticut is the Hon. Ebenezer Silliman, 1707, a member of the Colonial government, and grandfather of the elder Professor Silliman of Yale College. On both sides of the family were those who were identified with the Revolutionary war. The rector was educated at the Delaware Academy, Delhi, N. Y., St. Stephen's College, Annandale, and the General Theological Seminary, New York. He was made deacon by Bishop Doane in St. Peter's, Albany, Trinity Sunday, 1870, and ordered priest in St. Paul's, Newburgh, by Bishop Horatio Potter, November of the same year. He was rector of St. John's church, Monticello, N. Y., for three years, and the beautiful stone church there was built mostly by money then raised, as was also St. Mary's, Thompsonville. From 1873 to 1875 he was in charge of Trinity church, San Francisco. In 1875 he married Mary C. Warren, daughter of William E. Warren, of Newburgh; she died December 11, 1893, leaving three children: Mary Warren, William Warren and George Stephen Silliman. After one year at Napa, Cal., he took charge of St. George's chapel, Newburgh, and in the fall of 1877 was called to Grace church, Middletown. The church was sadly out of repair and during his rectorship it was put in order and adorned; from 1881 to 1893 he was rector of St. Mark's church, Hoosic Falls, and here, too, the church was enlarged and embellished under his rectorship. On Trinity Sunday, 1893, he became rector of Grace church of Albany, N. Y., where twenty-two years before on that day he preached his first sermon after ordination. Grace church on the Sunday after Ascension, 1897, celebrated its fiftieth anniversary and the Rev. Dr. Maunsell Van Rensselaer preached at the morning service, he being the first rector fifty years since; the Rev. David L. Schwartz, D. D., preached at the evening service, he being a most devoted rector for sixteen years and gave the parish its present life and standing. These two men have left their impression on Albany for all that is good. The first service was held in an upper room on the corner of State and Lark streets; afterward a church was built on the corner of Lark and Washington streets, and in 1873 it was removed to Clinton avenue and Robin street. In 1884 it was enlarged under Rev. Dr. Schwartz, and in 1894 a guild hall was added. From the day of its foundation to the present it has been a free church and a working parish for working people who have every reason to be proud of the results that have come, when no large sum of money could ever be given.

Simmons, George E., a prominent citizen of Cohoes since 1859, came from Troy where he was educated, and engaged m mercantile life, keeping a grocery store for many years before conducting the Harmony Hotel. He reopened the new building in 1880, and selling again in 1885. He now has two large farms in the suburbs of Cohoes. He is a son of A. C. Simmons, a farmer, and was born at Pocstenkill, Rensselaer county, in 1835. Amelia Shelton was his first wife, whom he married in 1856. In 1868 he married Margaret Jane Baker, his present wife, who is a daughter of A. M. Baker, of this city. Her great-grandfather was Capt. Seth Baker, who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and her grandfather, Lewis Baker, was killed at Sackett's Harbor in the war of 1812. Mr. Simmons has been prominently identified with public affairs, serving seven years as supervisor. In 1879 he was appointed assistant superintendent of public works, which position he held until 1895. Their son, Abram B., died in 1893 at the age of twenty-four years. He was a graduate of the Albany Medical College and had begun to practice at Amsterdam. He was regarded as a young man of great promise and his death was a heavy blow to his family and friends. There are two daughters now living, Annie E. and Amelia M.

Simpkin, Henry, born in Westerlo, N. Y., February 4, 1836, is a brother of Robert P. Simpkin, mentioned in this work. Henry Simpkin was reared on the farm, and with the exception of three years spent in Coeymans, has followed farming in the town of Westerlo. He has a farm of 120 acres where he resides and another of forty acres. In 1857 he married Louise H., daughter of John and Elsie (Traver) Freely, both natives of Greene county, and they have one son, Victor, who married Ella, daughter of William and Mariett Applebeen of Westerlo, and they have one daughter, Grace L. Simpkin, born January 15, 1888. Victor resides on the homestead and carries on the farm. In politics they are both Republicans and attend the M. E. church.

Simpkin, Robert P., born November 29, 1830, in Westerlo, was a son of Robert L. and Phoebe (Powell) Simpkin, he of Westerlo, and she of Long Island, and grandson of R. Simpkin on his father's side and of Samuel Powell on the maternal side; the latter was a farmer in Long Island. R. Simpkin spent his life in Westerlo; Robert L. Simpkin was a blacksmith by trade, at which he worked in connection with farming. Robert P. Simpkin has always followed farming and is the owner of 111 acres of land, forty acres of homestead settled by his grandfather and seventy-one which he bought. In 1855 he married Margaret, daughter of Nathaniel and Sally Holmes of Westerlo, and they have three children: Alice, widow of Daniel Lockwood, who died 1894; Ellison, who died, aged eighteen years; and Jennie, wife of Emery Palmer, farmer and thrasher of Greenville, Greene county, N. Y. In politics Mr. Simpkin is a Democrat and he and his family attend and support a Christian church.

Simpson, Anson A., was born at Hillside, N. Y., in 1842. He was the son of Benson Simpson, a merchant of that place, and was educated at Hudson River Institute. He began life as a clerk in a general store at Craryville. Mr. Simpson has traveled a good deal and has been engaged in many and various enterprises. In 1865 he went to the far West, and spent five years in Colorado and California as a miner, hotel keeper, fruit dealer, etc. In 1870 he drifted to Pittsburg, Pa., and traveled for a glass manufacturing company there. He then engaged in the mercantile business at Kinderhook Depot, remaining there till 1885, when he came to Troy and became connected with the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. now nominally occupying the position of inspector of signals. He is especially fertile in the line of inventions and has produced many valuable appliances, which have been adopted and are in daily use, among others, a time signal, and a life saving fender for motor cars, which possess peculiar merit and will, without doubt, come into general use.

Simpson, John F. has been a resident of Cohoes since 1840, and during that time has been associated with the Harmony Mills, and now has a responsible position as superintendent thereof. He is a descendant of an old family. His maternal grandfather, Avery Le Roy, came from France with La Fayette, and took part in the Revolutionary war. He was born at Saratoga in 1827, and is a son of Stephen Simpson, a farmer and millwright, who died here. Mr. Simpson was but nine years of age when he entered the cotton mills. He is a Republican, and was village trustee for a time. He has been police commissioner for two years and still holds that position.

Sims, Albert F., superintendent of the Albany Weather Bureau, was born in New York city, August 19, 1862, was graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1882, and soon afterward entered the Signal Service Bureau in Washington, D. C. Later he took a course at the School of Application at Fort Myers, and on the outbreak of the Indian troubles in Arizona was ordered to the Apache Pass as telegraph and heliograph operator, where he was soon placed in charge of the repeating station at St. Thomas. He was promoted for bravery and subsequently was stationed at Dodge City, Kan., Fort Smith, Ark., and in Wyoming, where he built a military line, 150 miles from Rawlins to Washakie. In 1888 he was ordered to Albany to take charge of the Signal Bureau at this point, succeeding John C. Barnes, who was the successor of Alois Donhausser. The Albany Weather Bureau was established December 32, 1874, the observations being confined to taking the temperature, wind directions and state of weather. Its scope was later enlarged and now reports are received twice daily from all the signal stations in the United States. The territory embraces all of the State east of Syracuse from Rhinebeck to Canada, Western Massachusetts and Vermont, and during the year ending June 30. 1896, over 300,000 forecasts were sent out. In October, 1890, Mr. Sims married Mary, daughter of Capt. James B. Smith of Port Washington, Long Island.

Sisson, Frank N., son of Noel E. and Emiline (Griffin) Sisson, was born in Albany, N.Y., in 1800. He received his education at the Albany High School, Albany Academy, and Taylor's Academy in Columbia county, from which institution he was graduated in 1878. After graduation Mr. Sisson returned to Albany and entered the gas meter works of D. McDonald & Co., where he thoroughly learned the business; he remained in the factory five or six years and subsequently went on the road as salesman, until 1892. During the years 1887 and 1888 Mr. Sisson was located at Columbus, O., representing D. McDonald & Co. In 1893 he went with the Welsbach Light Company as salesman and Albany representative; in August, 1895, just after the formation of the Welsbach Commercial Company, Mr. Sisson was tendered the position of salesman and Albany representative for that company, which position he now holds. He is also interested as a stockholder in gas light companies and is the Albany representative of a standard bicycle establishment. He is a member of Wadsworth Lodge No. 417, F. & A. M., Temple Chapter, R. A. M., De Witt Clinton Council, R. & S. M., Temple Commandery, K. T., and Cyprus Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. He is also a member of the K. A. E. O. and the Albany, Acacia and Unconditional Republican Clubs. In 1887 he married Minnie Brayton of Albany.

Skillicorn, John H., M.D., son of John and Jane (Cowell) Skillicorn, was born in Albany, N. Y., December 35, 1801. His parents came from the Isle of Man and belonged to a very old and respected family, his grandfather being a minister, noted for his eloquence, in the Methodist Episcopal church. Dr. Skillicorn attended the public schools and the Albany High School, from which institution he was graduated, receiving the English prize and first honorable mention for declamation. He then attended Cornell University, where he took the medical preparatory course and where he was fitted to enter the Albany Medical College. In 1883 he was graduated from the latter institution and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine, standing second in his class and receiving special honorable mention for his thesis. During his course at the Albany Medical College Dr. Skillicorn was also a student in the dispensary of the late Dr. John Swinburne. After his graduation he was connected with his alma mater for three years as prosector and also held quizzes. He then traveled extensively, studying the methods in the different hospitals, and in 1884 settled down to practice in Albany, opening an office at No. 324 Hudson avenue, where he is now located. Dr. Skillicorn is a frequent contributor to medical and scientific journals, and is a perfect linguist in German, French, Italian and Spanish. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society, and was one of the first surgeons in the world to advocate and operate successfully for appendicitis.

Skinner. David F., son of Philip and Anne (Benjamin) Skinner, was born in London, England, November 3, 1827. He was educated in Dean Stanhope School, London, and later worked for the British government as boiler maker for five years. In 1853 he came to America and settled in Syracuse, N. Y., and in 1855 he removed to Albany, N. Y., where he was employed by the New York Central Railroad. In 1863 Mr. Skinner formed a partnership with Joseph Arnold and they have since done a very large business as boilermakers, under the firm name of Skinner & Arnold. Mr. Skinner was at one time vice-president of the South End Bank and for a few years president of St. George's Society. November 9, 1857, he married Elizabeth, daughter of George Masters of New York, and they have six children: David F., Ephraim C., William N., Jane, Elizabeth and Minnie.

Slade, E. F., a son of Benjamin J. and Elizabeth (Flager) Slade, both natives of Saratoga county, N. Y., was born May 28, 1866; he was educated in the public schools at Waterford. The original location of his business was at Nos. 21 and 29 Church street, but in 1892 he established the coal business down town, by purchasing the large yards of F. B. Shattock at 148 Saratoga street, where he also handles wood, hay, and feed; he also owns extensive ice houses at the north end of the city of Cohoes. He is a Republican and is a prominent official in the Masonic fraternity; is a member of Apollo Commandery, also a member of the order of the Mystic Shrine and a member of the Mystic Club. He was married April 1, 1891, to Anna Ladd, of Waterford. They have one son, Benjamin J.

Slausen, Edwin.Tryansel Slausen, born in Albany county, N. Y., 1803, was a son of Eliphalet Slauson, who was one of the early settlers of Westerlo and there died. Tryansel Slauson was a farmer and spent his life in Westerlo and Rensselaerville, N. Y., where he was a lifelong Democrat. He married Mary Ten Eyck of Albany, and they had a family of twelve children, five now living: Caroline B., widow of Martin Bell, lives on the homestead; Hannah M. Palmer of Greene county, N. Y., William, on the homestead, who married Anna Louisa Haines and has one daughter; Mary E. , widow of William Finch; Lewis, who lives in Illinois, who married Wilhelmina Houghton, and has three daughters; Edwin, born in Westerlo, 1841, and educated in the common schools, is a farmer, and he and his brother William own the homestead of 100 acres. He is a Democrat in politics and was excise commissioner.

Slavin, Thomas, though a native of Waterford, N. Y., where he was born in 1833, has been a lifelong resident of Cohoes. His reminiscences of the place in its infancy are very interesting, and he is regarded as a personal landmark and compendium of data concerning the early times. His testimony is regarded as impeachable in cases involving boundaries and conditions of a half century ago. Here has been the scene of his early struggles in early business life, for Mr. Slavin is a self made man. He has been compelled to gain his own maintenance since he was nine years of age, as he was one of the seventeen children of Michael Slavin, who came from Ireland in 1832. He first engaged as a teamster for flour mills. In 1865 he established a coal business and in 1869 came to No. 135 Saratoga street, where he also deals in wood, hay, flour, feed and corn. In 1859 he married Elizabeth Bannon of Troy, by whom he has had eight children, four sons and four daughters; Thomas F. and Charles J. are associated with him in business.

Slingerland, Cornelius, was born September 15, 1839, in the house erected by Tunis Slingerland, his great-great-grandfather, in 1762. The first of the family in America was Tunis Cornelius Slingerland, born in Amsterdam, Holland, April 7, 1617, and came to America in 1650. In 1652 he purchased a tract of land lying east of the present Chapel street in Albany, and in 1605, with his brother-in-law, Johannes Apple, bought of the Indians 8,000 acres of land east of the Helderberg mountains, which comprised a portion of the present towns of New Scotland and Bethlehem; in 1684 this purchase was confirmed by Governor Dongan. Of this tract he retained 2,000 acres, the remainder going to the Van Rensselaers. His wife was Engeltie Albertsie Bradt, and their children who reached maturity were Arent, Albert, Cornelius and Elizabeth. Cornelius was born June 7, 1670, and married Eva Mebie, May 28, 1696; of his children one was Tunis Cornelius, above mentioned, born March 1, 1722; he spent his life clearing and improving the land, and the brick house he erected in 1762 is still standing in excellent preservation; he reared four sons; John, Cornelius, Peter and Henry, of whom Peter was the grandfather of the subject and was born February 5, 1759. He was an energetic man, built and operated mills and converted the timber on his land into lumber; his wife was Gertrude Bloomingdale; their children were Maus and Agnes; he died in 1847, in his eighty-ninth year. Maus, the father of the subject, was born March 7, 1806; he owned 7O0 acres of land and the saw and grist mills built by his father; he was public spirited and active in the welfare of his town. He married Susanna, daughter of William Sayer of New Scotland, and had four sons and four daughters. His wife died in 1856, and he died July 7, 1892. Cornelius Slingerland, the subject of this record, has spent his life on the homestead; he has between 250 and 300 acres, on which he has made many improvements in the way of buildings, etc., having the best barn in the town. He has recently bought the saw mill property adjoining his farm, consisting of thirty seven acres, with two good houses, barns, etc. Aside from his farm interests he is connected with other business enterprises. He is one of the original promoters and now president of the Clarksville Telephone Company. Politically he is a Republican and declined the nomination by that party for sheriff. He married, September 9, 1863, Anna, daughter of Garrett and Eve (Van Derzee) Hotaling of Bethlehem. They have two children: Mrs. Susie Shear and Evelyn C. Mrs. Shear has one son, Cornelius Slingerland. Mr. and Mrs. Slingerland are members of the Reformed church, in which he has been deacon and elder for several years. Mrs. Slingerland is a member of the Ladies Missionary Society.

Slingerland, De Witt Chester, son of Henry H. and Hannah (Winne) Slingerland, was born in the town of Bethlehem, Albany county, N. Y., in 1850. He comes of good old Dutch ancestry, as follows: Father, born 1808, son of Henry of New Scotland, died 1808 (m. Jemima Slingerland), son of Albert of Onisquatha, born 1733, died 1814 (m. Elizabeth Moak in 1760), son of Johannes of Onisquatha, born 1696, died 1731 (m. in 1724 to Anne Slingerland), son of Albert of Onisquatha, born 1666 (m. Hester Becker), son of Teunis Cornelise Slingerland, who came from Amsterdam, Holland, about 1650 and settled in Beverwyck (now Albany) and purchased 10,000 acres of land from the Indians and settled on the land now owned by his direct descendants. De Witt C. Slingerland, the subject of this sketch, was educated in the Albany public schools, after which he became clerk and bookkeeper for his father and brother, H. H. Slingerland & Son. In 1889 Henry H. sold out to his sons, John B. and D. C, who now own a large wholesale and retail grocery situated at 86 and 88 Washington avenue and 73 South Swan street. Mr. Slingerland is a member of Ancient City Lodge No. 452, F. & A. M., the Unconditional Republican Club, and is a director of the New York Mutual Savings and Loan Association. In March, 1875, he married Lillie Cuyler Geary of Albany, and they have two sons. Henry Cuyler and Frank Nelson.

Slingerland, Henry, was born in Albany county in 1830, and began his business life as a clerk in New Baltimore, Greene county, N. Y., and after six years began business for himself in New Baltimore, which he carried on until 1867, when he came to Coeymans where he has since conducted business, buying, selling and shipping hay and other farm products. In 1852 he married Charlotte Houghtaling, whose father was Anthony C. Houghtaling; her paternal grandfather was Conrad and great-grandfather Thomas Houghtaling, a pioneer of Albany county; and her maternal grandfather was Jasper S. Keeler. Mr. and Mrs. Slingerland have had five children; two died in infancy, and their three sons are now associated with their father in business.

Slingerland, Hon. William H., of Slingerlands, Albany county, is descended from Tunis Cornelius Slingerland, who came from Amsterdam, Holland, to what is now Bethlehem in 1650, (see sketch of the late Hon. John I. Slingerland in this volume), is a son of John A. and Leah (Brett) Slingerland, and was born November 13, 1820, and has always lived in his native town, Bethlehem. His chief occupation has been that of an expert civil engineer and surveyor. He was member of assembly in 1880 and originated and successfully carried through several local and general laws of great benefit to the people. He was subsequently three times unanimously nominated for the assembly, but declined the nomination each year, preferring to follow his profession to entering the field of politics. He was civil engineer of the United States government building in Albany, and when the stability and permanency of the beautiful assembly ceiling was in question in 1881-83 and 1887, he was appointed by the Legislature to take measurements of the new Capitol, make examinations and report upon any possible defects in the structure. In each of his reports he challenged the stability of the assembly ceiling, and in the last one warned the assembly of its dangerous condition and requested its removal, while other experts claimed its permanency. These reports were afterward verified, the ceiling was removed and a new one as recommended by him was substituted. Mr. Slingerland was also, in 1890, appointed and authorized by the War Department of the United States government to negotiate for the purchase by optional contracts of the farmers for one year, of a territory of about 3,500 acres, being one mile in width by ten miles long, comprising parts of the towns of Watervliet and Guilderland, to be used by the ordnance department for a proving ground in connection with the Watervliet Arsenal, and his report and map of the territory as selected by him, and options taken for the same, were unanimously adopted by the War and Ordnance Departments of the United States government, and Major Scofield of the army, and unanimously recommended by them to Congress and for an appropriation to pay for the land so taken by him; but Congress at that time failed to make the appropriation, yet It is still thought by the authorities that these lands will yet be taken for that purpose in connection with Watervliet Arsenal in place of Sandy Hook. He was one of the chief originators and founders in 1850 of the village of Slingerlands, named after the family, and secured a post-office and other improvements there. During the historical pageant of 1894 in Albany, he represented the great ancestor of the Slingerlands in the reproduction of the installation of the first mayor of that city. In 1842 he married, first, Elizabeth Wayne, and had five children: John H., assistant engineer on the New York Croton Aqueduct, who married Alice Preston; George W., superintendent and assistant general manager of the National Express Company of New York, who married Rosalia Mattice; Helene, who married Hiram Bender in 1882 and died in December, 1884; Lizzie W.. who married William H. Coughtry in 1895, and William H., Jr., a civil engineer and surveyor, who married Alice Bullock in 1896. Mr. Slingerland married, second, in 1868, Maria, daughter of Andrew Whitbeck.

Slingerland, William Harris, Jr., was born in Slingerland, Albany county, N. Y., December 10, 1863, and is a son of Col. W. H. and Elizabeth (Wayne) Slingerland. At an early age he entered the office of his father, a civil engineer and surveyor in Albany, and he has followed that profession ever since. In 1883 he assisted in locating the Albany branch of the West Shore Railroad, remaining with that company until the completion of its lines. In 1889 he made the preliminary surveys for the Troy & New England Railroad, since constructed as far as Averill Park. During the years 1891, 1892 and 1893, Mr. Slingerland was engineer of street improvements in East Albany and Greenbush, N. Y., and during those years work costing over a half million dollars was completed under his direction. Mr. Slingerland is a member of a family that was always active in political affairs, his father being member of assembly from the first district of Albany county in 1879, and his uncle, John D. Slingerland, member of Congress in 1860 and for several terms an assemblyman from the same county. He is a Republican, as were both of the above named gentlemen, and was appointed postmaster at Slingerlands, under the Harrison administration, holding that office from 1887 to 1892. In 1894 and 1895 he was a member of the Board of Supervisors from the town of Bethlehem, receiving at his election the largest majority ever given a candidate for that office in this town. In 1896 he married Alice Bullock, daughter of Charles C. Bullock of Saratoga, N. Y. He is an active member of Friendly Union Lodge No. 381 I. O. O. F., being past grand master of that body and also a member of the Holland Society of New York and several other organizations.

Smalling, L. K., has been a resident of Cohoes since the 1st of April, 1866. He was born in Windham, Greene county, in 1840; his boyhood was spent at Ashland; he enlisted in Co. F, 120th Regiment, N. Y. Vols., at Hunter, N. Y., in 1862 serving throughout the war. He was a corporal and participated in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, where he was wounded. His first two years here were spent as bookkeeper in the office of O. C. Finney, then with Bogue & Wager, and was afterward bookkeeper for Hilton & Co. He established the present business for himself in 1883. For one year he was president of the Merchants' Association and was commander of the G. A. R. Post for one year. Mr. Smalling has been notary public for fifteen years. His father was Cyrus Smalling, a contractor.

Smelzer, Baxter T., M. D., was born in the town of Lodi, Seneca county, N. Y., March 27, 1852. He attended the common schools and the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary at Lima, N. Y., and Syracuse University, where he was a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity. Subsequently he was a student in the medical department of the Michigan State University at Ann Arbor and later entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York city, from which he was graduated in 1874. He thereupon commenced the practice of his profession in Havana, N. Y. Dr. Smelzer has always been an active Republican in politics. He is a member of the Republican State League and was for several years chairman of the Central Committee. He was president of the village for a number of years, member of the Board of Education for four successive terms, and its president for six years. In 1893 -Dr. Smelzer was elected to represent the Twenty-seventh Senatorial District. While a member of the Senate he was chairman of the committee to investigate the State Board of Health. He introduced and ably supported very many important bills, among them being the Tuberculosis bill and the one maintaining the Public Health law. He is a member of the Schuyler County and State Medical Associations and the Elmira Academy of Medicine. In June, 1895, he was appointed secretary of the State Board of Health, which position he is now filling. In 1876 Dr. Smelzer married Lucy A. Tracy, whose father, Peter Tracy, was one of the first presidents of the Chemung Canal Bank of Elmira and president of the Chemung Railroad. They are the parents of two sons.

Smith, Dr. Charles H., was born on Madison avenue in Albany, July 14, 1830, and is a son of John and Sarah (Capron) Smith, natives of New England, who came here about 1810. John was a gardener and died about 1842; his wife died in 1881. Dr. Smith read medicine with Dr. Richard H. Thompson (later health officer of the port of New York) and was graduated from the Albany Medical College in 1854. Soon afterward he was appointed resident physician to the Albany County Alms House, where he had charge of the cholera patients during that memorable year. The last case in the institution was his own. After recovering he obtained through Dr. Thompson an appointment as physician and surgeon on Marshall O. Roberts' steamship line from New York to Havana, New Orleans and Aspinwall. He continued in this capacity for four years, acquiring a large experience in the treatment of yellow and other southern fevers, and returning to Albany in 1859 he has since practiced his profession. In 1864 and 1865 he was acting assistant surgeon in the Ira Harris U. S. General Hospital, located at the old barracks in Albany county. In 1859 he opened a drug store, which he has since continued, and which has been located at 246 Washington avenue since 1866. Dr. Smith has been a member of the Albany County Medical Society since about 1855, was president of the Albany County Pharmaceutical Association at one time, has served in the old volunteer fire department, and in Co. F, 10th Battalion, N. Y. N. G., was supervisor of Thirteenth ward for six terms, and was president of the Albany Business Men's Association for one year. He is now serving his third year as a member of the Albany Board of Health. In 1867 he married Lucy, daughter of John Blair of Albany, and they have four chil- dren: Dr. James E., a graduate of the Albany Academy and the Albany Medical College, inspector of rifle practice in the Tenth Battalion, and a practicing physician with his father; Lucy E., a graduate of the Albany Female Academy, the Albany State Normal College, and the Woman's College of Baltimore, Md.; Charles H., Jr., a student of pharmacy associated with his father; and Charlotta J., a student at the Woman's College of Baltimore.

Smith, Charles W., son of Cornelius and Phebe (Clute) Smith, was born in Rockwood, Fulton county, March 1, 1849, and came with the family to Albany in 1856. His father was associated with Alfred Van Santvoord in the steamboat business for twenty years, and from 1876 until his death, in 1887, was a heavy dealer in ice. He was one of the original directors in the Albany County Bank and a trustee of the First Baptist church for a number of years. After the death of his first wife in 1879 he married Helen M. Sherwood, who survives. Charles W. Smith was educated at public school No. 8, the Boys' Academy, Cass's Grand Street Institute and the Albany Business College, and for two years was purser on the steamer Mary Powell, from Rondout to New York. After three years as bookkeeper for the Albany County Savings Bank he became associated with his father in the ice business and on the latter's death succeeded him. In 1892 he was one of the organizers of the Hudson Valley Ice Company; he became its president in 1893, but resigned in 1894 in order to take the office of secretary, which had become vacant, and at the last annual election held January 5. 1897, was re-elected to the office of president. This company was incorporated in March, 1893, with a a capital of $50,000 and is three times larger than any similar concern in Albany, harvesting about 40,000 tons of ice annually. In 1880 Mr. Smith married Rebecca L., daughter of Shuball Kelly of Guilderland, Albany county. He has a summer residence about five miles from Albany on the Great Western Turnpike where he resides about five months in the year. The rest of the year he spends in the city.

Smith, James E., M. D., son of Dr. C. H. and Lucy (Blair) Smith, was born in Albany, N. Y., October 5, 1867. He received his preliminary education in the Albany Academy, from which he was graduated in 1885, with high honors, being valedictorian of his class. During the winter of 1885-86 he took a year's course at Union College, preparatory to the study of medicine, after which he studied for a time with Dr. A. Vander Veer. In the fall of 1886 he entered the Albany Medical College and was graduated in 1889, receiving the degree of M. D.; he was the valedictorian of the class and received one of the honors for the best graduating thesis. After leaving the medical college Dr. Smith spent a year in New York city, taking a post-graduate course at the New York Polyclinic and the New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital. Since then Dr. Smith has practiced in Albany. He has been interested in military affairs since 1885 and is now inspector of rifle practice on Colonel Fitch's staflf. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society and was county physician for four years, from 1890 to 1893.

Smith, M. B., chief of police of the city of Cohoes, is a native of Troy, born in 1843, but has been a resident here since two years of age. He went on the capital police force in 1869, remaining on the force most of the time since. In 1892 he reached his present position, and is regarded as a very capable officer, having the esteem of the force and the citizens. His first relations with the mills was that of spinner, soon becoming foreman of that department. He was also foreman of the Mohawk Engine Company No. 2 of the Volunteer Fire Department, and is a member of Cohoes Lodge No. 116, F. & A. M.

Smith, Oscar, Capt., was born in Howard, Steuben county, N. Y., June 15. 1846. He received a public school and academical education. In 1861, when only fifteen, he enlisted in Co. G, 13th N.Y.Vol. Inf., and served eighteen months; he re-enlisted in January, 1864, in Co. H, 13th N. Y. H. A., as sergeant and served until the close of the war in June, 1865. He was in many engagements of the armies of the Potomac and the James; wounded at the first battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. Returning from the war, then but nineteen years of age, he engaged in the sewing machine business in New York city, but removed to Albany in 1868. Here he continued a large wholesale sewing machine and lumber business until June, 1893; since then, he with his son, under the firm name of Oscar Smith & Son, have carried on a successful wholesale wood, baled shavings, excelsior, sawdust and charcoal trade. Mr. Smith is connected with several of Albany's business, political and social organizations; is president of the Novelty Knitting Co., a trustee of the Tennessee Land Company, a member of Temple Lodge No. 14, F. & A. M., a charter member of Chancellors Lodge, K. P., a charter member of the Albany Club, a past commander of Post No. 5, G. A. R., ex-president and member of the Albany Unconditional Republican Club; a member of the Press Club; also for about eight years commander and now a life member of the Albany Burgesses Corps.

Snyder, Cecil, born in Rensselaerville, September 10, 1848, is a son of David H. and Eunice (Head) Snyder, both natives of Rensselaerville. They came to Westerlo in 1851 and engaged in farming, where they remained until his death. Mrs. Snyder still lives on the homestead with Cecil Snyder. The grandfather, Ephraim Snyder, was an early settler of Rensselaerville and came from Dutchess county. Cecil Snyder has always been a farmer on the homestead, which consists of 160 acres and he now intends making a specialty of dairying. In 1877 he married Anna, daughter of William and Ann Norton of Westerlo, and they have two children, Jessie M. and Millard.

Snyder, Henry F., was born in Albany, July 18, 1850. His ancestors were Dutch and came to this country in the sixteenth century. One of them, Johannes Snyder, was a member of the second Council of Safety appointed in October, 1777, of the third Congress of the United States, and of the first Assembly in 1777. Mr. Snyder's father was for many years an attorney and counselor at Bethlehem, N. Y., and died in 1863. His mother's maiden name was Houghtaling. She was a native of the town of Bethlehem, and died December 7. 1896, at the residence of her son, Henry F. Snyder in Albany. Mr. Snyder was educated at the district school of Bethlehem and in 1863, upon the death of his father, was obliged to discontinue his studies. He worked about five years in a small grocery store and was next employed in Larrabee's steam bakery in Albany, where he remained seven years. In 1878, with his brother, he engaged in the grocery business which they carried on successfully for ten years. In 1890 Mr. Snyder established his present grocery store at No. 11 Second avenue, which is now in charge of his youngest son. In 1886 he was elected a Republican member of the Board of Supervisors from the First ward, which position he also filled in 1887 and 1888. In 1892 he was chosen treasurer of the Republican County Committee, in 1894 and '95 he was president of the Republican City Committee, and is now a member of the Executive Republican Committee of the county of Albany, representing the First Assembly district. He has been an able campaign speaker since 1884. January 1, 1893, Mr. Snyder was appointed deputy clerk of Albany county by Hon. James D. Walsh. Upon the election of Hon. George H. Fitts, the present surrogate, Mr. Snyder was appointed deputy surrogate, the position which he now holds. He has displayed fine literary taste and talent in several articles which he has contributed to newspaper literature. He is a member of the Capital City Republican Club of Albany, the Republican League of Albany and the Republican League of New York. In 1869 he married Adelia, daughter of the late David Mull of Coeymans, and they have two sons; Lemuel H. and Alvin.

Soderstrom, Charles E., came from Sweden to America in 1881, then about thirty-three years of age. In his native country he had learned the trade of machinist, and soon secured a position with the Albany Iron Works, with whom he remained for three years. In 1884 he went to Watervliet as a machinist. He was a a member of the Free church of Sweden, and here in America belonging to the Methodist Episcopal church, which granted him the freedom of speaking for his country-people.

Soop, J. J. Conrad Soop was born in Philadelphia, Pa., October 10, 1745. His parents were of the German Palatinates who emigrated from Wurtemburg, Germany (the birthplace of Martin Luther) to America, under the patronage of Queen Anne, early in the eighteenth century, owing to the religious intolerance at that time manifested towards the followers of the great reformer, Luther. The larger portion of these emigrants settled in the tows of Livingston and Germantown, Columbia county, N. Y. A few years after, owing to the feudal tenure of their lands under Livingston, many found their way to the fertile valleys of the Schoharie and Mohawk, and there and in Columbia county their descendants are yet found, and to-day many prominent citizens can trace their lineage to these worthy pioneers. In May, 1774, Conrad Soop married Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Becker of Schoharie (also of Wurtemburg descent), an aunt of the renowned Schoharie lawyer and banker, Abraham Becker. The larger portion of Schoharie county was then an unbroken wilderness, and he purchased a valuable and fertile farm in the town of Bethlehem, Albany county, near what is now South Bethlehem. He with his young wife had scarcely become settled there when he was called to shoulder his musket to fight in that war which "tried men's souls." He was made a subaltern officer in Capt. Jurian Hogan's Co., 4th Regiment, and about a year after was transferred to Capt. Conradt Ten Eyck's Co. of the 5th Regiment, of which Peter Whitbeck was first and Albert H. Van Derzee second lieutenants, under General Schuyler, and was with him in all his engagements on the northern frontier and at the surrender of Burgoyne at Stillwater, October 7, 1777, At the close of the war he returned to his farm, where with his wife, surrounded by children and grandchildren, he lived far beyond the allotted years of man, enjoying the blessings of peace, and that social and religious liberty he assisted to achieve. His wife died August 14, 1843, in the eighty-eighth year of her age, and he on September 26, 1847, having reached the remarkable age of nearly one hundred and two years. They lived eventful and Christian lives, and died honored and respected by their neighbors. The writer of this sketch, now in his seventy-eighth year, a grandson, heard repeated many of their reminiscences, one of which is related as follows: When he was in the army his wife, wishing to visit her parents in Schoharie, saddled her horse with a sheep-skin, and made the journey through an almost unbroken wilderness, where Brant and Butler, with their band of tories and Indians, were on the warpath, pillaging, burning, and often murdering. She quite frequently made this journey of over eighty miles, unprotected, and was never harmed. Who is the dame of the present day who would undertake a similar journey? Their Children: Mary was born near South Bethlehem, November 30, 1782, married by Rev. Christian Bork (formerly a chaplain in the Hessian array in the Revolution), Septemper 27, 1800, and died March 23, 1861. Michael Niver, her husband, was born in Livingston, Columbia county, June 2, 1778; his ancestors were also of the Palatinate colonists. In 1790 he with his father's family moved to Bethlehem on a large farm he had previously purchased. His father, David, had served in the Revolution as first sergeant in Capt. Teunis Van Dalsten's Co., 5th Regiment, under General Schuyler, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. Michael was drafted in the war of 1812 and served at Brooklyn Heights. He was a successful farmer, and died April 13, 1858. His farm is still owned by his descendants. Their children were: Elizabeth S., born July 12, 1802, died unmarried September 8, 1879. Margaret, born November 2, 1805, married Peter A. Ten Eyck, September 25, 1838; now (1897) living; has one child living Katharine, born March 4, 1812, married John Crum, May 16, 1832; died August 24, 1851; three children, Mary E., Hugh J., and James J. Conrad, born November 16, 1815; studied medicine with William Bay of Albany, graduated from Fairfield Medical College in 1837, and located in Ancram, Columbia county, where, and in Dutchess county, he gained eminence as a physician reached by few; married Jane Mclntyre, and after her death, married her sister Roxana; died January 31, 1867, leaving three children by his first wife Caroline, John Soop and Albert C., and three by his second wife Walter, Loda and Herman Bay. David, born February 16, 1820, married Phebe C. Hotaling of New Baltimore, October 26, 1843; living and author of this sketch and owner of the old Niver homestead; has four children living Mary Soop Haswell, Conrad, Eugene A., and Charles A. Jacob Soop, son of Conrad Soop, born May 3, 1786, married Maria Potter, September 6, 1837, died June 11, 1868; his wife died August 12, 1884; one child, Henry C. Jacob entered the United States army July 15, 1812 and served under Captain Penfield. Henry C. Soop, a well-known leading attorney at law of Rondout, Kingston, was born at Albany, N. Y , April 17, 1842. He studied law in the office of Judge M. B. Mattice at Durham, N. Y., graduated from the Albany Law School in 1863 and practiced law at Roxbury, Delaware county, N. Y. In 1890 he moved to Kingston and in January of the same year he was elected president of the First National Bank of Rondout; was also appointed attorney for the estate of Thomas Cornell, and secretary and counsel of the Ulster & Delaware Railroad Company; he is also the counsel and attorney for several other corporations, and is vice-president, attorney, and one of the founders of the Peckham Truck & Wheel Company, of Kingston. In October, 1867, Mr. Soop was united in marriage with Helen M., daughter of Erastus T. Peck, of Windham, N. Y., and one child, Katharine, has been born to them. Frederick, son of Conrad, born March 18, 1790, married Margaret Van Zant, September 20, 1817, who died November 3, 1851; Frederick died May 13, 1870, leaving two daughters, Maria and Rebecca, living. John, son of Conrad, born June 16, 1793, died March 11, 1874; when a young man he engaged In the grocery business at what is now known as Becker's Corners, but in later years purchased two farms, one for each of his sons, and became a successful farmer and sheep breeder. He also held important town offices, having been a justice of the peace for thirty-two consecutive years. On February 21, 1838, he married Mary Ann Russell, daughter of William Russell and Judith McHarg, who was born April 31, 1800, and died November 29, 1843; and susequently married Huldah, sister of his first wife, who was born June 15, 1815, and died childless April 24, 1883. He had three children by his first wife; Jacob J., who was born December 9, 1838, married Ann Kimmey, daughter of David Kimmey and Marie Niver, March 3, 1852, who died February 1, 1859, leaving three children, John, Jennie and Leonard. On December 6, 1863, he married Margaret Jane Coon, who died childless August 6, 1886, aged fifty years. Mr. Soop is a successful farmer and breeder of fine horses; is still living on his farm at Selkirk. His only daughter Jennie K., was born June 15, 1855, and her husband, Capt. David C. Bull, and granddaughter, Ethel J. Bull, are living with him. Mr. Bull is extensively engaged in poultry, fruit and berry farming; he was born September 15, 1847, in the town of Coeymans; he followed the river from 1867 to 1894, then sold his boat and began farming. Ethel J. was born December 7, 1887. Sons of J. J. Soop: John Soop was drowned in the Hudson River, June 35, 1864, aged eleven years. Leonard was born November 3, 1857, married Georgia Livingston, January 6, 1887, and died February 19, 1891; he was a great horseman and a favorite with all who knew him. Leonard W. Soop was born September 13, 1883, married Elvira Jane Conger of Canada, and died July 3, 1894, leaving three children, Jessie, Nellie and John B. He was a farmer and was elected justice of sessions one term and justice of the peace in Bethlehem for twelve years. His widow and children are still living at Selkirk. Mary E. Soop was born in Bethlehem, October 19, 1834, and is living at Selkirk. Com.

Southworth, Dr. Julius B., dates his lineage to the Mayflower Pilgrims of 1620. His father, Alden Southworth, who married Betsey Barker, was a prominent manufacturer of Oriskany Falls, Oneida county, a captain in the old State militia and for twelve years a justice of the peace. Dr. Southworth, born in Oriskany Falls, N. Y., February 6. 1849, was educated at Cazenovia Seminary and at Madison University in Hamilton, and from 1871 to 1876 was a teacher m the former institution and from the latter date to 1881 was president of the Vermont Methodist Seminary and Female College at Montpelier. He read medicine with Dr. J. D. Munn of Herkimer county, was graduated from the medical department of the University of Vermont at Burlington in 1882, and began the practice of his profeseion in Albany, where he has since resided. From 1885 to 1895 he was literary editor of the Albany Evening Journal and since then has held a similar position on the staff of the Albany Argus, and also done considerable literary work for magazines and other periodicals. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society and a charter member of the Albany Press Club. August 22, 1872, he was married at Schuyler's Lake, N. Y., to Arzelia, daughter of the Rev. Reuben S. Southworth. She died July 30, 1873, and he married, second, November 28, 1876, Eleanor H., daughter of Dr. J. Dayton Munn of Van Hornesville, Herkimer county. They have one son, Hamilton Munn Southworth, born February 11, 1881. Dr. Southworth is an elder in the First Methodist Episcopal church and has been superintendent of its Sunday school at intervals for the last ten years.

Spaulding, Alonzo, born in Westerlo, February, 1825, is a son of Hugh and Mary (St. John) Spaulding, who were lifelong residents of Westerlo. The grandfather, Elnathan Spaulding, came from Connecticut to Kinderhook and engaged in farming. He afterwards removed to Westerlo where he died. He was twenty-five years justice in Westerlo. Alonzo Spaulding was reared on the farm and educated in the common schools. He studied law with Rufus Watson of Greenville, then with Lyman Tremain, and in 1851 was admitted to the bar and for many years practiced his profession in Albany county. Mr. Spaulding has always had his residence on the old homestead, with the exception of four years spent in Rensselaerville and less than one year in Kingston.

Speir, Stuart G., was born in West Milton, Saratoga county, N. Y., May 29, 1847. His father was Robert Speir, a prominent, influential representative citizen, well known to business men throughout the State. His mother is Elizabeth Vedder Speir of this city. In 1876 he married Ida Cutler, an Albany lady; they have a family of four children: Mabel R., Grace E., Ruth E. and William Stuart. All are members of the Madison Avenue Dutch Reformed church, except William, the youngest. Mr. Speir is deacon in this church. In early life Mr. Speir mastered the rudiments of a common school education, graduated from the Ballston Academy in 1862, and from Eastman's Business College, at Poughkeepsie, in 1866. Being an expert bookkeeper he was appointed assignee by the courts to settle several large estates during 1866, 1867 and 1868. The largest of these was that of Edward C. Koonz, wholesale and retail carpet dealer. Mr. Speir devoted a year to the preliminary study of law, and graduated from the Albany Law School, class of 1879-80; was admitted to the bar May 25, 1880. He served as official court stenographer to the Court of Special Sessions in 1881 and 1882; to the law department of the city of Albany, 1883; also reported in the various City, County, State and United States Courts. Mr. Speir was president of the Albany Stenographers' Association in 1887. This was an organization of about twenty stenographers, consisting mainly of the official court reporters of the city, county and State, and of stenographers connected with the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the State government, together with a few from the ranks of those employed in business and professional offices. Mr. Speir being musically inclined, in early life devoted considerable attention to vocal music, occupying several positions as solo tenor in Albany and Troy churches. On January 10, 1877, he was elected president of the Mendelssohn Vocal Club, a triple quartette of Albany's best male voices. This popular club for several years catered to the music loving public of Albany and vicinity, winning many laurels for its muscial skill. In Masonic circles Mr. Speir is what is known as a correct ritualist. He was raised in Masters Lodge No. 5, F. & A. M., November 22, 1875; was advanced in that lodge to the several subordinate places and stations in regular succession, covering a period of eight years, and was senior deacon two years. He is a Royal Arch Mason in Capital City Chapter No. 242, R. A. M., and also Royal Select and Superexcellent Master in De Witt Clinton Council No. 23, this city. On December 14, 1896, he was elected Master of Masters Lodge No. 5, F. & A. M., the initial lodge in America, constituted in Albany on February 21, 1765, under the title Union Lodge, F. & A. M.

Spencer, Charles M., was born in Albany and is the son of Daniel and grandson of John Spencer, who came to Albany when a young man and had three sons: John, William and Daniel. Daniel Spencer, after being in business in Albany for some years, moved to what is now Glenmont, where he died in 1878, leaving one son, C. M. Spencer, as above. Charles M. Spencer has remained on the home at Glenmont, where he is a gardener and fruit grower.

Spillane, P. H., one of the most popular and enterprising druggists of the city, has been in the city since 1876, when he opened a store under the firm name of Spillane & Davis. In 1880 he purchased his partner's interest, and removed to Larkin Hall, and in 1890 to his present location. Mr. Spillane was born in Rochester in 1858, and is a son of David Spillane, now a retired resident of Cohoes. He has been engaged in the drug business all of his lifetime and is a past master of its requirements and the accessory lines, and although young in years is the oldest druggist in point of residence at Cohoes. He is a prominent Democrat and has filled various offices, such as com- missioner of schools, etc.

Sporborg, Silas, is the son of Joseph Sporborg, a native of Bavaria, Germany, who came to America and settled in Albany about 1836 and who died here in April, 1889, aged seventy-three. Joseph was a prominent wholesale milliner, and founded the present business of his son in 1846. In 1876 he took his sons Henry J. and Silas into partnership under the firm name of J. Sporborg & Sons, and upon his retirement in 1886 the style of J. Sporborg's Sons was adopted. Henry J. died in December, 1892, and since then Silas Sporborg has continued the business alone, carrying on a large wholesale trade. Joseph was for many years president of the congregation of Beth Emeth and a director of the National Savings Bank. Silas Sporborg, born in Albany, February 10, 1851, was educated at the Boys' Academy and Professor Anthony's School and when eighteen entered his father's store. He is a member of Washington Lodge No. 85, F. & A. M., the Bna Brith and the Delphi Club.

Springer, J. Austin, son of Adrian Oliver and Jeanette (Squire) Springer, was born in Utica, N.Y., January 11, 1870. In 1878 his parents moved to Albany, N.Y., where he was educated in the public and high schools. Music being his aim, and with a determination to devote his whole time to its study, he left the High School in the winter of 1888 and placed himself under the instruction of Dr. Jeffery and John Kautz for piano and Samuel Belding for organ. In June, 1895, Mr. Springer went to New York to further pursue the study of the piano under William Mason, Mus. Doc, A. C. M., who is recognized as America's greatest pianoforte teacher. At the present time he still continues his studies under the valued tutelage of this great master. In the spring of 1888 he received his first charge in the capacity of assistant organist of All Saints' Cathedral, Albany, N. Y., which position he held during the summer of that year during Dr. Jeffery's absence in Europe. The following year he was appointed organist of St. Luke's Episcopal church at Cambridge, N. Y. In 1889 he went to the First M. E. church at Lansingburgh, N. Y., where he held the position of organist for three years. His next charge was at the North Reformed church of West Troy, N. Y., and in September, 1894, he was appointed organist and director of music in the First M. E. church of Albany, N. Y. In November, 1896, Mr. Springer was chosen out of eighteen applicants to be the organist of the State Street Presbyterian church ofAlbany, which position he still holds, giving eminent satisfaction in that capacity. On June 13, 1890, Mr. Springer was married to Olive G. Robertson of Albany. He has won for himself distinction as a piano- forte instructor and exponent of Dr. Mason's method. The "Springer Musicales," which are given every season by his pupils, show evidence of his conscientious work in this department. During the season of 1896-97 he has given a series of lecture musicales to his pupils on the "Principle of Devitalization as Applied to Artistic Piano Playing," and the "Lives and Works of Famous Composers." Mr. Springer has written many compositions for the piano and voice, his works having been rendered by such organizations as Gilmore's, Sousa's, and the United States Marine Band of Washington. His latest work, a "Valse Caprice," has been heard in concert and pronounced to be a work of decided originality with rich harmonical treatment. He has also dedicated a "Slumber Song" to Mrs. Olivia Shafer of Albany, and a "Lullaby" to Townsend H. Fellows, solo baritone of Grace church, New York.

Springsted, William C., is the son of Henry and great-grandson of Jeremiah Springsted, who came from England and settled on the farm where the Springsteds now live in 1790, and was a farmer. He died in 1813 and left one son, Stephen, who died in 1837, and left five sons and four daughters; Jeremiah, Oliver, John, Stephen, Henry, Lydia, Jane, Sally Ann and Mary. Henry remained on the homestead and is one of the leading farmers of the town. He has one son, William C, who carries on the farm with his father, Henry Springsted. He married Elvira Carroll and had one son and one daughter. William C. and Jane, now Mrs. William D. Fuller. William C. married Carrie A., daughter of Jeremiah Dean, and has one son and one daughter, Dean and Jennie F.

Staats, John M. was born in Schodack, Rensselaer county, in 1812 and is the son of Barrent N. and grandson of Nicholas Staats, who, with two brothers, came from Holland among the early settlers. Nicholas Staats had four sons; George, Joachim P., William and Barrent N., who in 1832 settled the farm where John M. now lives. He died in 1848 and left two sons; Garret B., and John M., who remained on the homestead and carried on the farm. John M. Staats had two sons and three daughters. John A. now runs the farm, and the youngest son, Joachim P., died in 1885.

Stahl, Simon, son of Jacob and Rosaline Stahl, was born in Ostrova, Germany, January 29, 1860, and came to America with his parents in 1867, settling in Elmira, N. Y., where he was educated. In 1874 he became a clerk in the fancy goods and millinery store of A. F. Cohen, with whom he remained four years; he was then for three years in the employ of Stahl & Case, of Jersey City, N. J., and in 1881 opened a millinery and fancy goods store there, which he continued till 1884; later he was in business in Newark, N. J., and also clerked for Lichtenstein & Sons for a time. In February, 1888, he came to Albany and with his brother Julius, under the firm name of J. Stahl & Brother, bought out the millinery establishment of M. M. Hydemen. In 1892 Simon Stahl purchased his brother's interest and since then has conducted the business alone with marked success; he is exclusively a retailer, employs about forty hands and is one of the leading milliners in Eastern New York. In 1880 he married Miss Sarah, daughter of Charles Stone of Jersey City, N. J., who takes an active part in the management of the business and to whom is due a very large measure of the success attained.

Stanton, William, for many years associated with Mr. Graham in a large grocery store on Willow street, Cohoes, under the firm name of Stanton & Graham, was a mason by trade and has always carried on a large contracting business, which he still continues. He has always been largely interested in the coal business. Mr. Stanton has always taken a lively interest in all that pertains to to the welfare of the city and its local government. He was constable and deputy sheriff during the war, and has been alderman, also president of the Board of Education, and is still a prominent factor in politics. Mr. Stanton is a native of Brunswick, Rensselaer county, and was born in 1838.

Star Knitting Company, The, was established in 1866, and its products have attained the highest reputation for superiority of material fashion and finish. The Star Mills are comprised in a group of substantially constructed brick buildings, arranged with special reference to convenience and dispatch of work and economy of production. The main building is four stories high and 65x105 feet in dimensions, and the other buildings adjoin the main structure. Water power is used to drive the machinery and an auxiliary steam engine is also employed. The mechanical equipment includes nine sets of cards, 2,160 spindles, 38 knitting cylinders, and forty sewing machines, and all the appliances in use are of the latest improved character, employment being given to one hundred and seventy-five skilled operatives. The products consist of fine wool, worsted and merino knit underwear of the best grades for both ladies and gentlemen, and the output averaging about 40,000 dozen per annum, is distributed direct to the trade through the United States. Medals and diplomas were awarded this company for superiority of knit underwear exhibition. The officers of the company are Messrs. Andrew M. Church, president; Thomas Dickson, treasurer; A. I. Whithouse, secretary, and Charles T. Boughton, general manager. An office is maintained at No. 43 Leonard street. New York city.

Stark, Moses, son of Myer and Barbette (Nussbaum) Stark, was born in Albany, February 11, 1851. His parents came from Germany in 1840 and first settled in North Adams, Mass., whence they moved about 1842 to Albany, where the father died in 1889. Myer Stark was for many years a dry goods merchant. Of his seven children four sons are living; Bernard, born January 1, 1846, now a manufacturer of ladies' wrappers; Moses, the subject of this sketch; Leopold, born in October, 1854, a bookkeeper for his brother Moses; and Louis, born May 24, 1856, a member of the New York Tailoring Company. All reside in Albany. Moses Stark was educated in the public and German schools of Albany, was for three years a clerk for Mann, Waldman & Co., and in April, 1868, formed a partnership with his brother Bernard, under the firm name of B. Stark & Co., and engaged in the fancy dry goods business in the old Tweddle Hall building. In 1882 they removed to No. 13 North Pearl street, where they made extensive improvements, putting in a large millinery department, and where they were burned out in the fall of 1895. The business was divided, Moses Stark continuing the millinery branch, which is located in the Y. M. C. A. building at the corner of North Pearl and Steuben streets. It is one of the best known establishments of the kind in Albany. He is a member of Washington Lodge No. 83, F. & A. M., and Gideon Lodge No. 140, I. O. B. B., and a charter member of the Adelphia Literary Club. March 22, 1874, he married Minnie, daughter of Morris Herman of Albany, who died August 26, 1889, leaving three children: Herbert M., Mae and Hattie.

Stedman, Francis W., son of George L. (see sketch) and Adda (Woolverton) Stedman, was born in Albany, December 7, 1867, attended the Albany Academy, and in 1884 became connected with the People's Gas Company, of which George A. Woolverton was president, and George L. Stedman was vice-president. When they sold out he became shipping clerk for Tracey & Wilson, wholesale grocers, and in April, 1891, he entered the firm of T. M. Hackett & Stedman, coal dealers, whom he succeeded in 1892. Since 1893 he has conducted exclusively a wholesale business, covering New York and the New England States. He is sales agent for the coal mined by David E. Williams & Co., a firm composed of the brother-in-law and son of George B. Roberts, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Mr. Stedman is a member of the Sons of the Revolution through Amos Hooker, whose son, John Parker Hooker, was the maternal grandfather of George L. Stedman, above named. Amos Hooker was a corporal in the Revolution, and was killed in service. In Feb- ruary, 1893, Francis W. Stedman married Clara H., daughter of Ralph W. Thacher of Albany, and they have one son, Woolverton Thacher Stedman. In November, 1896, he became a director and officer of the Albany Art Union of Albany, N.Y.

Steenberg, Byron V., M. D., son of Henry W. and Amelia C. (Usher) Steenberg, was born in Malta, Saratoga county, N. Y., April 18, 1839. He attended the Jonesville Academy and Fort Edward Collegiate Institute, after which he went into business in Mechanicsville as a clerk in Hatfield's general store. He remained there a few years, after which he was made bookkeeper for W. J. & R. H. Scott at Albany, N. Y. He then went West and was connected with the dry goods house of C. J. Pettibone & Co. at Fon du Lac and Green Bay, Wis. While West he determined to study medicine and in 1868 he returned East and entered the medical department of Vermont University at Burlington, where he took one course of lectures. Subsequently he removed to Albany, N. Y., and in 1870 he received his degree from the Albany Medical College and has since practiced in Albany. Dr. Steenberg is a member of the Albany County Medical Society, of which he has been secretary, vice president and president. He is also a member of the New York State Medical Society and is a master Mason. In June, 1880, he married Ada H. Higgs of Albany, and they have one son, Victor.

Stephens, Peter A., police justice of Albany, is a son of John and Catharine F. (Allen) Stephens, and was born in Albany, March 4, 1856. His father, who was born in New York city in 1839, remained here with his parents in 1845 and resided here till his death in September, 1888. Judge Stephens was educated in the Albany public schools Free Academy (now Albany High School), read law with Hiram L. Washburn, Jr., and was admitted to the bar at Binghamton, in May, 1877, when he began the practice of his profession in his native city, where he has always resided. In the tall of 1885 he succeeded John A. McCall, Jr., resigned as school commissioner, and in the following spring was elected for a full term of three years. December 31, 1889, he was appointed police justice, vice Martin D. Conway elected surrogate, and in April, 1890, and 1892, and November, 1895, he was elected to this office by handsome majorities. He is an able lawyer, a skilled parliamentarian and a great lover of outdoor sports. His wit and humor are among his chief characteristics. He is a member, an incorporator and ex-president of the Empire Curling Club, and a prominent member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and other fraternal societies. He is married and has five sons and one daughter. The family of Judge Stephens is an old one in the city of Albany, his paternal grandparents, James Stephens and Elizabeth (Levine) Stephens, who were married in the city of New York in or about the year 1815, having lived and died here, and his maternal grandparents, John Allen and Mary (Cary) Allen, having been married in this city prior to 1820 and always resided here.

Stephens, Thomas, son of Thomas and Jane (Christin) Stephens, was born on the Isle of Man, December 26, 1845. He received his education at a private school, after which he learned the trade of joiner. April 15, 1860, he came to America and settled in Albany, where he remained only fifteen months, leaving to go to Chicago, where he engaged in business for himself. He was compelled to return east because of sickness, and in 1870 he established himself in the business of carpenter and builder on Madison avenue, Albany. Subsequently he removed to Hamilton street, where he remained until 1880. In the same year he built and equipped his present large manufactory at Nos. 275 and 277 Lark street; this building contains all the latest and most improved machinery for fine building and architectural work. Mr. Stephens gives the most attention to elaborate interiors. He built the Government building, Calvary Baptist church, Masonic Temple and many private residences in Albany, Troy, Lenox, Hoosick Falls and elsewhere. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, a member of the Albany Club, and in 1885 was appointed city assessor by Mayor Wilson, but resigned. He has four sons, Fred J., Thomas, Jr., Walter B. and Goldsmith C.

Stevens, George H., son of George and Margaret (Browne) Stevens, was born in Albany September 28, 1850, and attended school No. 8 and the Boys' Academy. In 1868 he entered Rutgers College and was graduated with high honors in 1872, delivering the valedictory. He read law in the office of Hon. Amasa J. Parker for one year and was graduated from the Albany Law School in 1874, being one of the commencement orators. The same year he was admitted to the bar in Albany. In November, 1874. he was appointed by John M. Bailey assistant district attorney, an office he held for three years. For about five years he was a member of the Examining Board of the Third Judicial Department, being appointed by the Supreme Court. Being a staunch Republican he was elected alderman of the Fourteenth ward in the spring of 1892 and re-elected in 1894, and was noted in the Common Council for his hard work for economy, honesty, and good government. He is a member of Ancient City Lodge No. 452, F. & A. M., Fort Orange Club, and the Empire Curling Club, and from 1876 to 1892 was president of the Capital City Club. He was also for several years a director of the Ridgefield Athletic Club. In 1880 he married Mary Hand Ogden, daughter of Edward Ogden of Albany, and they have one son, Ogden Stevens, born July 30, 1882.

Stevens, Joseph, the well-known news dealer and stationer, has been located for thirty-four years on Remsen street. He first entered the business in 1863 under the firm name of Jones & Stevens, but since 1865 he has conducted the business alone. He has a varied line of school books, blank books, envelopes, writing paper, pens and ink, also fashion magazines, and he makes a specialty of Butterick patterns of which he has the agency. Mr. Stevens is a native of Cohoes, and a lifelong resident. He was born in 1839, and is the son of John Stevens, a mechanic. He received a common school education and first worked in a woolen mill. In 1870 Mr. Stevens married Miss Lucy M. Reinhart of Berne, N. Y. They have two children, Charles and Lydia F.

Stewart, L. D., born April 10, 1851, is a son of Ebenezer and Catherine (Carpenter) Stewart, both natives of Westerlo. The parents of Ebenezer were Andrew and Lydia (Seaman) Stewart, of Albany county, but spent their last days in Greenville, Greene county. Ebenezer Stewart has been a farmer, speculator in stock and wool buyer; his business is now dealing in wool at South Westerlo, which business he has followed twenty-five years. He has two children ; L. D. Stewart, as above, Susan S., wife of Clarence S. Gage, proprietor of the Ravena House, Ravena, N. Y. The parents of Catherine (Carpenter) Stewart were Thomas G. and Janett (Green) Carpenter, he a native of Stephentown and she of Westerlo. He was a boot and shoe dealer at Coxsackie, and grocer and farmer in Westerlo. The parents of Janett Green were Capt. John and Mary (Llewellyn) Green, he of England and she of France. He was a drummer in the Revolutionary war, and owned a large estate and kept slaves. The parents of Thomas G. Carpenter were Samuel and Homar (Arnold) Carpenter; she was a cousin to Stephen A. Douglass and relative of Benedict Arnold. In 1888 L. D. Stewart married Josephine, daughter of George W. and Lucy (Reynolds) Robbins of South Westerlo. Mrs. Stewart died April 12, 1893. She was a teacher of music and educated in Albany. Mr. Stewart has been in the wool business with his father, and in 1888 he engaged in general mercantile business at South Westerlo and carries a complete line as needed in country stores. He is a Republican and has been county committeeman five or six years; he also has been postmaster at South Westerlo.

Stillman, Dr. William O., of Albany, N. Y., son of Rev. Stephen Lewis and Lucretia (Miller) Stillman, and grandson of Ethan Stillman, was born September 9, 1856, at Normansville, a suburb of Albany. Dr. Stillman's paternal ancestry were Puritans, having come to this country in 1686 from England, and early took an active part in colonial life in Connecticut and Rhode Island. His mother's family came from Holland a little later and were numbered among the Dutch settlers of the Hudson River valley. During and subsequent to the Revolutionary war, Ethan Stillman, who owned a gun factory, manufactured large quantities of rifles for the Continental army, and a number of members of the family on both sides served in its ranks. Dr. Stillman was educated in his native city and leceived the honorary degree of A. M. from Union College in 1880. He commenced the study of medicine in 1874, his medical preceptors being Drs. James H. Armsby, Samuel B. Ward and John P. Gray. He attended four courses of lectures at the Albany Medical College and received his degree February 3. 1878, taking the highest honors of his class and several prizes. Dr. Stillman was associated with the Drs. Strong in the management of their sanitarium at Saratoga Springs from 1878 to 1883: at the end of that period he visited Europe and spent a year and a half in study in the universities of Berlin, Vienna and Paris and in the London hospitals. Returning to the United States in the autumn of 1884, he began the practice of medicine and surgery in Albany, which city has since been his residence. The project of a loan exhibition in 1886 to celebrate the bi-centennial of Albany's city charter, was first proposed by Dr. Stillman and he was most active in making it a success, as a member of the board of directors and chairman of the building committee. From this exhibition he conceived the idea of a permanent museum, and mainly owing to his initiative, the Albany Historical and Art Association was incorporated, which institution will soon have a fine building of its own. As president of the Mohawk and Hudson River Humane Society, his philanthropic instincts have found full play, and much needed legislation has been secured throgh his efforts to promote humane work in the State. He is also a vice-president of both the State and National Humane Associations. Dr. Stillman has been a member of the Albany County Medical Society, the Albany Academy of Medicine, the.Medical Society of the State of New York, the Association of American Anatomists, the American Society for the Advancement of Science, the American Sociological Society and the Albany Institute; trustee of the Albany Historical and Art Society; director of the Fairview Home since 1888; president of the Mohawk and Hudson River Humane Society since 1892; an officer of the Vigilance and Civic Leagues of Albany; a member of various social and political clubs; and of the order of Masons and Odd Fellows. He was physician to the Open Door Mission and Hospital for Incurables in 1887 and 1888; to the Babies' Nursery and Bathrop Memorial from 1888 to 1892; to the Home for Christian Workers since 1892; and to the Dominican Monastery since 1887. He has delivered several courses of medical lectures before various bodies and is the author of many contributions to medical literature, notably on "Neurasthenia," "Cholera," "The Mineral Springs of Saratoga," and many others. Dr. Stillman married Miss Frances M. Rice, of Boston, in 1880, but has no other family. He is still engaged in the active practice of his profession in Albany.

Stitt, James O., is a native of the town of Rensselaerville, Albany county, born in 1856. Lovett, the grandfather, was born in the town of Rensselaerville about 1770. John J., the father, was born in the town of Rensselaerville in 1814. He always owned and conducted a farm, but was an architect and builder by trade, to which he devoted most of his attention. He had a wide reputation as a church builder, having to his credit twenty-eight churches and numerous other buildings. In 1860 he removed to the town of Windham, Greene county, where he was prominently connected with the political affairs of his town, filling the offices of supervisor and assessor and many minor offices. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity, Lodge No. 529. His first wife was Miranda Head, by whom four children were born: Rozella, Ransom, Sarah, who died when eight years of age, and Salina. His second wife was Lodema Head, a sister of his first wife, and their children were James O. and Eunice. He died August 19, 1886, and his wife died February 13, 1895. Mr. Stitt received his education in the common schools of his town and worked on his father's farm until fourteen years of age, when his father took him and taught him the builder's trade. He worked with his father from that time, except one year, until he was twenty-three years of age. November 24, 1879, he was married to Annie E., born in the town of Windham, Greene county, and daughter of Patrick Murray. In 1880 he began for himself by engaging in the hotel business at Indian Fields, in the town of Coeymans, where he remained for eight years. In 1888 he rented the hotel in Altamont, and two years later purchased it. Since then he has made many essential improvements on his hotel. Mr. Stitt is a man especially adapted for the hotel business, and his genial disposition and years of experience have taught him what is required to make it pleasant for the patrons of his house. In 1895 he was a delegate to the State Democratic Convention held in Syracuse, and of the sixteen years he has been in the business in Albany county, thirteen of them he has been delegate to the county conventions.

Stock, Bernard, was born in Bavaria, Germany, September 1, 1844. After attending the public schools he was apprenticed to the tailoring trade in Frankfort-on- Maine. In 1861 he went to London, Eng., to improve himself in his trade until 1871, then came to America, and after spending a short time in New York came to Albany and took a position as cutter for Walter F. Hurcomb, where he remained eight years, after which he removed to Toronto, Canada, and was manager and cutter for Score & Son, King street, eighteen months, then returned to Albany to succeed W. F. Hurcomb in his business under the firm name of Lyman & Stock. Since the death of Lyman he has continued the business at 65 North Pearl street under the name of Bernard Stock.

Stoffels, William, is the son of Peter Stoffels, who came from Germany and settled on a farm in Bethlehem, where he was a farmer until he retired and moved to Albany, where he died. William Stoffels bought the homestead and is a farmer and gardener and also runs a large dairy. He has four sons: William, Jr., Peter, John E. and George.

Stonehouse, John Ben, M.D., was born on June 4, 1851, at Albany, N. Y., and is a son of the late General John B. Stonehouse, who was born at Maidstone, England, in 1813, and who was prominent, from the time of the breaking out of War of the Rebellion, until 1885, (the year of his decease, at Washington, D. C.) in military affairs, both State, and National. During the latter years of his life, he was commissioner for the settlement of war claims, of the State of New York, against the U. S. Dr. Stonehouse attended private school, and the Albany, (N. Y.), Boys Academy, and was graduated from the latter institution, in 1868. From that time, until 1869, he was clerk of the State Board of Charities. He began his studies (in medicine) with Prof. Jacob S. Mosher, and Dr. Levi Moore, and was graduated from the Albany Medical College, in 1871. He was then appointed temporary deputy, under the late Prof. John M. Carnochan, health officer, Port of N. Y., and held that office for about a year, when he received the appointment, as assistant resident physician, at the Sanford Hall, private insane asylum hospital, at Flushing, N. Y., from which position he re- signed in 1873. He returned to Albany, in 1874, where he was married (in that year) to Miss Sarah E. Rigley. From 1874 to 1876, he was in the active practice of his profession, at Albany, and in the latter year, was appointed resident physician, at Brigham Hall, Canandaigua. N. Y., (private insane hospital), where he remained for about one year and a half. He then, (in 1878) returned to Albany, where he has ever since remained, in the successful practice of medicine. Dr. Stonehouse has held many offices, among them being Physician, Albany Hospital Dispensary. (Department of Nervous Diseases) Lecturer, Albany Medical College, (Nervous and Mental Diseases) and during a term of four years, he held clinics in Mental diseases, at the Albany County Insane Asylum and was Physician (Department of Nervous Diseases), at the Troy, (N. Y.) Eye and Ear Infirmary. He has also been editor of the Albany Medical Annals. In 1885, he was executive officer of the staff of special physicians, in charge of the Typhus fever epidemic, at the Albany Penitentiary. In April, 1880, he was appointed Physician and Surgeon, to the Albany Penitentiary, and held that office until January, 1890. Dr. Stonehouse has held office in the Alumni Association, of the Albany Medical College, almost from its organization having been its first historian, a member of the executive committee for several terms, and is now its corresponding secretary. He is also a member of the following societies: Albany County Medical; American Medical; Union Medical Association, (covering Washington, Warren, Saratoga, Albany and Rensselaer counties); and has been president of the Albany Academy of Medicine; American Association, for the cure of Inebriates; N. Y. Neurological; and N. Y. Medico Legal. Dr. Stonehouse has done considerable Medico-Legal work, (especially in cases where the de- fense of insanity was set up, as he is an expert in that disease), and has been connected with many of the celebrated murder cases, in and around this city; among them, the following; Hughes for the murder of a prominent criminal attorney, William J. Hadley; the Bronty case, (in Westchester Co.); the Jones, ("Ivy Green") case, (in Rensselaer Co.); and the Wood case, (in Warren county), and latterly, the notable, Nelson, Shattuck, and Morgan cases in Albany city. Dr. Stonehouse has gained some prominence in literary circles, through his contributions to many of the leading medical journals. To his union with Sarah E. Rigley were born three children; one of whom, Roger H., survives. Mrs. Stonehouse passed away on November 22, 1892.

Stover, Charles M., superintendent of West Troy and Green Island Water Works System, is a Trojan by birth and education. He learned the printer's trade and was identified with that art for some years; then spent three years as clerk for a lumber firm, and then traveled through the West for six years. He became superintendent of the water system in 1884, and has proven a most efficient manager. Mr. Stover was liberally educated at the best institutions of Troy. His father was Samuel Stover, a prominent lawyer here, and once city attorney of Troy; he also held the same office at West Troy, where the family removed.

Strevell, A. M., was born in the town of Berne in 1830. He is the son of Harvey and grandson of Mathias Strevell, who came from Dutchess county to Berne about 1800. Harvey Strevell had three sons; Jason W., who is a prominent lawyer; Estus H. , who was for some years a merchant at Ravena and died there May 22, 1896; and A. M. Strevell who, in 1857 went to Albany where he was in a store until 1873, when he returned to Berne and engaged in the farming business until 1885 when he moved to New Scotland, and in 1889 came to Ravenna and opened a hardware store, which he has since carried on. He has always taken a keen interest in the affairs of his town, and for nine years served as highway commissioner, and was also a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1874.

Sturgess, Charles E., a well known landmark and patriot in the Northern army in the war of the Rebellion, was born in the town of Knox, June 17, 1846, on the farm he now owns and occupies. George Sturgess, the grandfather of Charles E., was born in Delaware county, N. Y., a descendant from one of four brothers who migrated from England to America in an early day. George spent his life as a farmer in Delaware county and lived to be a very aged man; he was the father of ten sons and daughters. David, the father of Charles E. Sturgess, was born in Delaware county, June 13, 1815. He was a farmer and carpenter, spending most of his life at his trade. In 1844 he moved to the town of Knox, where he spent his remaining days. He was prominently identified with the Republican party in his town, but never an aspirant for office. He owned the farm now owned by Charles E. Sturgess, and formerly owned by his father-in-law, Nathaniel Swan. His wife was Melinda, daughter of Nathaniel Swan, and their children were Charles E., Nathaniel, Adelia, Sarah, Isadore and Eugene. He died in March, 1867, and his wife survives him and resides on the home farm with her son. Her father, Nathaniel Swan, was a prominent man in the town of Knox, and did much toward building it up. His place of business and residence has ever been known as Swan's Corners, where he owned 600 acres of land, a hotel, store, blacksmith shop, and also a large potash factory. In stature he was of medium height and weighed about 165 pounds, but herculean in strength; he would pick up a 400 pound weight from the ground and place it in a wagon, or pick up a barrel of cider from the ground on to his knees and drink from the bunghole. He lived to be ninety-five years old and was perfectly healthy to the morning of the day of his death, which occurred in December, 1872. Charles E. Sturgess attended the common schools and was graduated from the Knoxville Academy. He remained on the farm with his parents until July 28, 1862, when yet a lad of but sixteen years he answered his country's call for troops and enlisted in Co. K, 7th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, and served three years, participating in all the battles of his regiment; the principal engagements being the battle of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna River, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg, being in the famous bayonet charges of the two latter battles. At the battle of Deep Bottom he was captured and confined in Libby prison one month, when he was transferred to Belle Island prison, where he endured terrible sufferings for two months, from the effects of which he has never fully recovered. After his return home he engaged in farming and teaching during the winter months; this he followed for a number of years, always making his present residence his home. In politics he is a Republican, having served two years as town clerk and elected and re-elected ten successive years to the office of justice of the peace, the last year resigning the office. He has also filled the office of school commissioner for the Third district of Albany county for three years. He is a member of Michael H. Barckley G. A. R. Post of Altamont, N. Y. December 31, 1868, he married Nancy E., daughter of John and Elizabeth (Kane) Quay, and their children are Louie, Edith, Bertha, Ada, Rosco and Lottie.

Sturtevant, Stephen V., one of the most prominent men of Watervliet, is the son of George A. Sturtevant, a pioneer settler here from Fort Miller, N. Y., where Stephen was born in 1844. He was educated here and has always been engaged in the lumber and coal business, forming a partnership with William Andrews in 1881. Mr. Sturtevant is now president of the Board of Fire Commissioners, of which he has been a member for fifteen years. He has an interesting war record, participating in several big battles. He enlisted in Co. of the Seventh N. Y. Heavy Artillery in 1863, and served until the close of the war as sergeant.

Sutherland, Charles R., is descended from Joseph Sutherland, who came from Scotland and settled in Horseneck, Conn., where his son Thomas was born in 1736. Thomas married Barsheba Palmer and died in 1807. His son William, born December 31, 1791, settled in Kinderhook, N. Y., and died December 31, 1811. Rufus Sutherland, son of William, was born in 1799, married Sally Nivar, removed to Schoharie, N. Y., in 1840 and died in 1849. His son Michael, born in 1828, married Christina Lawyer and died February 25, 1888; his wife died in January, 1872. Her family were among the early Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam. Charles R. Sutherland, son of Michael, was born in Schoharie, January, 31, 1857, and after attaining his majority spent four years as clerk in the grocery store of his uncle, Isaac P. Sutherland, in Albany. In 1882 he engaged in the produce commission business as a member of the firm of Burlians & Sutherland, which in 1883 was succeeded by Burhans, Sutherland & Co., which was followed in 1885 by I. P. Sutherland & Co. In 1838 his brother Willard J. was admitted and in 1890 the two brothers, Charles R. and Willard J., withdrew and formed the present commission firm of C. R. & W. J. Sutherland, which also deals in real estate. Mr. Southerland was a director of the South End Bank and is a member of Mount Vernon Lodge No. 3, F. & A. M., Capital City Chapter R. A. M., Temple Commandery K. T., and the Scottish Rite bodies. October 14, 1892, he married Mary Elizabeth, daughter of William H. Righter of Albany, and their children are Charles, Jr. (deceased), Florence and Hellen.

Sutherland, Isaac P., son of Rufus and Sally (Niver) Sutherland, was born in Schodack, Columbia county, N. Y., December 16, 1832. In 1836 Mr. Sutherland's parents moved to a farm near Kinderhook village and in 1838 to Schoharie county, where he finished his education at the Schoharie Academy in 1852. After leaving school he moved to Quaker Street, Schenectady county, in 1860, and worked on a farm until 1864, when he moved to Albany, N. Y., and engaged in the retail grocery business at No. 244 Washington avenue. In connection with that business he was engaged in the manufacture of brooms from 1882 to 1888, and from then to the present time has been engaged in the commission business at No. 50 Hudson avenue. In 1890 he formed a partnership with C. F. Rushmore, under the firm name of I. P. Sutherland & Co. Mr. Sutherland is a member of the State Street Presbyterian church. He has been twice married and has three daughters living, Anna, by Hannah Moore, his first wife, and Ida and Helen W., by Anna Wright, his second wife.

Sutherland, Willard J., son of Michael and brother of Charles R. Sutherland (see above sketch), was born in Schoharie, N. Y., October 10, 1859, and when eighteen came to Albany as clerk for Haskell & Gallup, wholesale spices, etc., with whom he remained about three years. Later he was employed by J. E. Moore, manufacturer of pills. This position was given up to embark in the retail grocery business, which was successfully carried on for nearly six years. In the .spring of 1885 he sold the grocery business to William H. Righter and became partner with his uncle, Isaac P. Sutherland and brother, C. R. Sutherland, in the produce commis- sion business, in which he has since continued, being now a member with his brother in the firm of C. R. & W. J. Sutherland. He is a member of Temple Lodge No. 14, F. & A. M. In 1884 he married Anna Stacpole of Albany, and their children are Mable, Harry, Libbie (deceased), Clara and Willard J., jr,

Swarthout, William, born in Westerlo, January 10, 1829, was a son of George W. and Catherine (Patre) Swarthout, and grandson of Peter Patre, and Cornelius Swarthout. Peter Patre was a native of Holland and an early settler of Westerlo. Cornelius Swarthout came from Dutchess county to Westerlo in pioneer days. George W. Swarthout was a farmer of Westerlo and a Whig, then Republican in politics, and a member of the Dutch Reform church. He died in 1857 and his wife in 1870. William Swarthout was brought up on the farm and in 1855 married Catherine, daughter of John Crawford of Westerlo, and they have one son, George W., who married Annie Adrience, daughter of George Adrience, farmer of Westerlo. George W. Swarthout works the homestead farm with his father, which consists of 104 acres; they also carry on a farm of C. Hinckley of 140 acres. In politics they are Republicans.

Swatling, James H., the well known wholesale and retail dealer in paints, wallpaper, and decorations, located at No. 50 Oneida street, Cohoes, established the business here in 1868. He is of English descent, born in the town of Watervliet in 1848. His early manhood was spent on a farm, but he acquired the painter's trade at Saratoga Springs, where he resided four years. In 1890 in association with A. G. Tanner, he erected the "Excelsior Knitting Mill," devoted to the manufacture of ladies' and children's ribbed underwear. He has been on the Board of Health and served in many minor offices.

Sweeny, William P., was born in New York city in 1855. He is a son of Patrick Sweeny, who was a well known boss mason and contractor in New York city, having erected some of the largest buildings and principal church fronts. Mr. Sweeny's mother's maiden name was Margaret Butler. He attended private schools in New York and in 1862 moved with his parents to Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where his father had the superintendency of the mason work on Yassar College. In 1863 his father died, and after his death, Mr. Sweeny, with his mother and sister moved, to Montreal, Can., so as to be with relatives in fulfillment of his father's dying request. Here young Sweeny attended the St. Lawrence and St. Ann Schools of the Christian Brothers and also the Jesuit College, from which he graduated in 1870. In the fall of 1870 he removed to Albany, N. Y., and learned the trade of cabinetmaker with the late Charles Ferguson. After three years' apprenticeship at this trade, he went into the carpenter business and served part of his apprenticeship with Walsh Brothers, and worked at this trade until 1885, when he started in the business of undertaker at No. 171 Central avenue, where he is now located and where he does a good business. At the age of eighteen, Mr. Sweeny being a great lover of military, joined the Albany Jackson Corps; he was recording secretary of this organization for five years, and for three years carried the Walsh medal for proficiency in drill. He also succeeded Major Walsh of the Jacksonians, the leading Democratic political club of the city, and was in command on the occasion of their memorable trip to the Democratic State Convention held at Saratoga, N. Y., 1885, when Hon. David B. Hill received the nomination for governor the first time. In 1886 he ran for supervisor of the Tenth ward on the Democratic ticket and was defeated by Charles Strempel. In 1887 he again ran and was elected over Charles Strempel; in 1888 he defeated John Kurtz for the same office. Mr. Sweeny is a life member of the Catholic Union and a member of Branch 136 C. M. B. A., Our Lady of Angels Council No. 145, C. B. L., Fort Orange Council No. 697, Royal Arcanum, and the Mohawk and Columbus As- sociations. Mr. Sweeny is also president of the Holy Name Society of St. Patrick's church.

Swett, Dr. Joseph B., Jr., son of Joseph B. and Emily C. (Gilson) Swett, was born in Brookline, N. H., March 5, 1865. He is descended from John Swett, who in 1643 came from Oxton, Devonshire county, England, and settled in Newbury, Mass., and who was also a grantee of the town of Newbury. Captain Benjamin, son of John, was killed in 1677, in the French and Indian war at Scarborough, Maine. Joseph Swett, grandson of Benjamin, settled in Marblehead, Mass., and was the first to engage in foreign trade and laid the foundation of the great commercial prosperity which Marblehead enjoyed before the Revolution. His son Samuel married Anna Woodbury, niece and adopted daughter of Rev. John Barnard in 1716, and their son Samuel was also engaged in foreign trade. His son, Henry Jackson Swett, a venerable citizen of Marblehead, was the grandfather of Dr. Joseph B. Swett, Jr. The doctor attended Gushing Academy at Ashburnham, Mass., and graduated from there in 1890. He then attended the Albany Medical College from which he graduated in 1893, receiving the degree of M. D. Since then he has practiced in Albany. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society, Masters Lodge No. 5. F. & A. M., and Co. B, 10th Batt., N. G. N. Y. He is also instructor in Obstetrics at the Albany Medical College and attending physician at the Albany City Hospital Dispensary and to the Dispensary of the Albany City Mission.

Swift, William, Sr., was born in the city of York, England, in 1769. He married Esther Staber of the same place, and they had three children; Elizabeth, Jane and William, Jr. In 1822 Mr. Swift came to America with his family, settling in Albany, where he engaged in the grocery business, and in 1824 he purchased a farm in the town of New Scotland, Albany county, N. Y., when he gave up his business and devoted his time to agricultural pursuits. His wife died in 1833, and he in 1851. After the death of his father, William Swift, Jr., took charge of the farm, managing it with great success. October 27, 1851, he married Margaret Ann Wands, of the old Scotch family of Wands, from which the place took its name, and they had five children: William Slater, Mary Ellen, Charles Henry and Esther Ann, (one dying in infancy). Mr. Swift died March 25, 1879, in his sixty-eighth year. At the age of nineteen William Slater took a course at the Albany Business College and soon after engaged in mercantile business in Albany. December 17, 1879, he married Emma L. Wands, and June 10, 1880, he came to Voorheesville, N. Y., and engaged in general store trade, which he conducted for seven years, and then sold the business on account of failing health. April 1, 1888, he engaged in the retail lumber business and a year later added to the business a manufacturing plant, which he operated with success until October 5, 1893, when his mill was destroyed by fire. He at once rebuilt on the site a storehouse and continued the retail business as before until May 1, 1894, when he sold out, and since that time has been engaged in contracting and building. Mr. and Mrs. Swift have seven children as follows; Mabel Slater, Grace Wands, Annie Louis, Sarah Drew, Cyrus Burgess, Emma May and William Raymond (Sarah and Cyrus being twins). December 24, 1883, Charles Henry Swift married Mary Louisa Pearl, and he is living on the old homestead in New Scotland. Margaret Ann Swift, the mother, is still living at the age of seventy-six, and enjoys good health, living by herself and looking after her household duties.

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