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Family Sketches

Surnames Beginning with "C"

This page was last updated 6 Apr 2016

These family sketches are from Landmarks of Albany County, New York, edited by Amasa J. Parker of Albany, N. Y., Syracuse, N. Y.; D. Mason & Co. Publishers, 1897.

Cady, Dr. Frank William, son of Clark S. and Atalanta (Barrett) Cady, was born in Warsaw, N. Y., December 13, 1863, and in 1871 moved with the family to Holley, Orleans county, where he received a public school education. His maternal uncle, Dr. W. C. Barrett, is the well known dean of Buffalo Dental University. Dr. Cady studied dentistry with his brother. Dr. Edward Everett Cady, of Moline, Ill., and was graduated from the Chicago College of Dental Surgery in 1888. He practiced in Earlville, Ill., until 1890, when he became associated with his preceptor brother at Hoboken, N. J. In 1892 he came to Albany and organized the Cady Dental Company, which has a branch office in Troy and a force of eight assistants and of which he has since been the proprietor. He is a memberof the Albany and Camera Clubs. In March, 1891, he married Mary Louise, daughter of Orange J. Eddy, a prominent lawyer and president of the Exchange Bank of Holley, N. Y. They have one son, Frank William, Jr., born January 26, 1893.

Cady, Harvey J., son of Eli F. and Eunice P. (Parish) Cady, was born in Windsor, Mass., June 10, 1843, attended the public schools and the High School at Huntington, Mass., and was graduated from the Westfield Academy in 1861; he also took a course in a business college at Syracuse, N. Y., and became a clerk in the commission office of Charles J. White, in New York city, who was engaged in shipping goods South to the army. Mr. Cady finally went South with goods and continued in that capacity for Mr. White until 1864, when he became a partner in the firm of McMurray, Hunt & Cady, general merchants of Delhi, N. Y. Three years later Mr. Cady sold out and entered the employ of Morris Brothers, Hour and grain merchants of Oneonta, N. Y., with whom he remained eight years, being a partner the last two years. He was then in the employ of O. H. Hastings & Co., proprietors of the Cumberland Mills of Oswego, N. Y., for eight years. In 1888 he came to Albany and engaged in the wholesale flour and grain business. In 1866 he married Minnie E.,daughter of Henry G. Smith, a lieutenant in Ellsworth's Zouves, 44th Regt., in the Civil war. She died August 3, 1895, leaving five children: Lizzie P., Pardee Eugene, Frank Thurber, Annie M., and Minnie E. (who died December 13, 1895).

Calkins, H. G., though a young man has been a prominent member of the Board of Education of the city of Cohoes for five years, and has taken an active part in its councils. When he was twenty-one years of age he was elected school commissioner, making a very competent officer for that responsible position. Mr. Calkins is a descendant of the old Connecticut family, and a son of A. T. Calkins, a prominent furniture dealer since the war. He enlisted in 1861 in Co. A, 23d Regiment N. Y. Vols., as first sergeant, but returned lieutenant and quartermaster. Among the battles in which he participated may be mentioned those of South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Second Bull Run. He was for thirty years in the same store, which, since 1887, has been in charge of his son, H. G. Calkins, who was born in Cohoes in 1869.

Cameron, Frederick W., the eldest son of Truman D. Cameron, was born in Albany, June 1, 1859. His early education was acquired at the Albany Academy, which he entered when he was five years old. He entered Union College in the class of 1881 and was graduated with the highest honors. He immediately entered the Albany Law School and in the spring of 1882 was admitted to the bar. In college Mr. Cameron gave especial attention to the study of the sciences and took extra courses in physics, mechanics, chemistry and electricity for the purpose of qualifying himself for the practice of patent law. His vacations were spent in a law office. His father, who was for many years a professor in the Albany Academy, early inculcated in his son a taste for literary pursuits. In the prosecution of the special branch of law relating to patents, Mr. Cameron has been very successful, acting as counsel in many important suits for infringements, and has had wide experience in the United States Courts. He is the counsel for several large manufacturing concerns and has been uniformly successful. Since 1882 he has been a member of the law firm of Ward & Cameron, his partner being Hon. Walter E. Ward. In 1892 he was appointed United States commissioner by Judges Wallace and Coxe and still holds the position. He is a member of the Albany Club, the Albany Institute, the Albany Historical and Art Society, the Albany Camera Club, Temple Lodge No. 14, F. & A. M., and a trustee of the First Presbyterian church. In 1891 he married Jennie A., daughter of Judge Amos Dean, one of the founders of the Albany Law School. They have two daughters, Jean Elizabeth and Josephine.

Campbell, Hon. George, a well known citizen, long identified with the interests of Cohoes, is of Canadian birth, and first located at Cohoes in 1847, and after sixteen years' residence at Waterford, where he learned the machinist's trade and was for a time in partnership with George Gage, he returned to this city in 1863, and established with John Clute the present firm. In 1873 they erected a commodious modern block on their old location opposite the Harmony Hotel. He makes a specialty of machinery for knitting, but produces much other work of high grade. Mr. Camp- bell was formerly a leader in local politics, and besides various minor offices previously held, he was elected in 1881 to the Assembly by a large majority.

Campbell, Stewart, born August 20, 1831, in the town of Columbus, Chenango county, N. Y., is the son of Alonzo S. Campbell and a grandson of Samuel Campbell, who at one time represented Chenango county in the Legislature at Albany, and also as a member of Congress at Washington, D. C. Samuel Campbell was a personal friend of Henry Clay, from whom he drank in the principles of protective tariff', which still run strong in the veins of the family. Stewart Campbell's mother was a daughter of Gideon De Forest, one of four brothers who received pensions for services in the war of the Revolution. In early March, 1841, Mr. Campbell came to Albany and entered the store of Charles A. De Forest, in which after a few years he received an interest. Later Mr. De Forest retired, and a new partnership was formed with his son, Dewitt C. De Forest, under the firm name of Campbell & De Forest, which con- tinued for about six years, through the war of the Rebellion. In May, 1867, Mr. Campbell located himself at the well known store, corner of South Pearl and Plain streets, where he successfully prosecuted the business until June, 1896, when he turned it over to his son, Edward W. Campbell. He married Catherine Mitchell, of Albany, who died July 25, 1896, and they had three children: Jessie Maud, who died at the early age of eleven months and eleven days; Sarah Elizabeth, wife of Alfred S. Woodworth, of Boston, where she resides, having one son, Stewart Campbell Woodworth; and Edward Willers Campbell of Albany. During all these years Mr. Campbell has been positive in his political convictions, being first a Whig, after the Thurlow Weed kind, and now an unflinching Republican. For over fifty years he has been an active member of the Baptist church.

Capron, John D., son of William and Clarissa (Dodge) Capron, was born in Albany, October 27, 1830, and on his mother's side is descended from the Peabodys of New England. Mr. Capron, after receiving a public school education, became a clerk for William N. Cassidy, grocer, and later entered the employ of Ford & Grant, druggists, on the site of the Hawk street entrance to the Capitol. Four years afterward he purchased Mr. Grant's interest and in 1860 withdrew to form a partnership with Edmund L. Judson and engaged in the wholesale flour and provision business. The firm of Judson & Capron continued until 1887, when Mr. Judson retired and it became Capron & Smith, which on Mr. Smith's retirement was succeeded by John D. Capron & Co., which was dissolved in October, 1895. Mr. Capron was one of the founders and incorporators of the Home Savings Bank, which opened for business May 4, 1872, and was vice-president until the death of William White in 1882, when he became its president. The treasurer, Edmund L. Judson, died in 1890 and Mr. Capron acted as both president and treasurer for two years, when he resigned the presidency and has since continued as treasurer, being the only charter member of the bank still living. He was supervisor of the Sixth ward one year. In 1861 he married a daughter of William White, and they have one son, William White Capron, a graduate of the Albany Academy (being major of the Cadet Corps) and of Yale College, and now of the wholesale provision firm of Lester & Capron of Albany.

Capron, Arthur S., M. D., son of John D. and Elizabeth (Letcher) Capron, was born at Schoharie Court House, January 10, 1850. His maternal great-grandfather was one of the first settlers near Schoharie and cleared up five hundred acres of woodland. His first paternal ancestor to come to America was Banfield Capron, who came in 1640. Dr. Capron's parents removed to Albany, N. Y., when he was five years of age. He attended the public schools and Mr. Lawson's private school. In 1881 he entered the Albany Medical College and in 1886 received the degree of M. D. Since then he has practiced in Albany. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society and Clinton Lodge No. 7, I O. O. F. In June, 1883, Dr. Capron married Isidor Irene, daughter of Dr. Daniel Peabody of Sheffield, Mass. She died in 1884, and in October, 1895, he married Mary Hager of Schodack Landing, N. Y.

Capron, William J., was born in the city of Albany, November 16, 1833. He was a son of John Capron, who was born in Albany in 1790. He was one of two children, Sarah and John, born to William Capron, a native of Connecticut, who was a farmer and a soldier in the war of 1812. John, the father, was a farmer and a dairyman. He spent his last days in the town of Watervliet. His wife was Sarah Pangborn, daughter of George Pangborn. Their children were Sarah, wife of Robert Harper, of Albany, John P., Martha, William J., and Mary. He died in 1849, and his wife survived him until 1887. When twenty-one years of age William J. began for himself as a farmer, near Guilderland village, which he followed for some twelve years, when he opened a grocery store in Guilderland, which he conducted for fifteen years, and in addition to this he practiced as a veterinarian. He later disposed of his store and devoted his whole time as a veterinarian, at which he had gained a wide reputation. He was clerk for one term, justice for six years, and was overseer of the poor for many years. He was also elected constable for fourteen consecutive years. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Wadsworth Lodge of Albany, and of the Knights Chapter. He is also an officer of the Humane Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals and children, and has also been a member of the Board of Health for a number of years. In 1862 he enlisted in Co. B, 10th New York State Volunteers, which was changed to 177th, and was discharged after three months on account of sickness. In 1864 he married Margaret Scott, born in the town of New Scotland, and daughter of Peter Scott; their children are Alice and John H. The latter is a telegraph operator. Mr. Capron has served his town as deputy sheriff, being appointed by a Democratic sheriff, which is much to his credit.

Carr, Lewis E., was born March 10, 1842, in the town of Salisbury, Herkimer county, is the son of Eleazer and Hannah (Rayner) Carr, and a grandson of Eleazer and Hannah (Hakes) Carr, natives of New England. The father of Eleazer, with one or two brothers, was in the Revolutionary war. Lewis E. Carr was educated at Falley Seminary in Fulton, N. Y., and was graduated from Fairfield Academy in Herkimer county in 1861. After spending two years on the farm, he came in the spring of 1863 to Albany and graduated from the Albany Law School in 1864 and was admitted to the bar. He then spent one year in the law office of Sherman S. Rogers in Buffalo, where he had as his roommate Grover Cleveland. In July, 1865, he began the practice of his profession in Port Jervis, N. Y. , and continued until 1893, having from 1869 to 1874 O. P. Howell, now surrogate of Orange county, as his partner. Mr. Carr was elected district attorney of Orange county in 1871, and held the office three years, and was a member of the Board of Education of Port Jervis for sixteen years. In 1893 he came to Albany as attorney for the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company (railroad department) and still holds that position. From 1872 to June 1, 1896, he was the attorney for the N. Y., L. E. & W. R. R. Co., having charge of their business in Orange, Sullivan and Delaware counties. He is a member of Port Jervis Lodge No. 338, F. & A. M. , a member and past high priest of Neversink Chapter No. 189, R. A. M., a member of Delaware Commandery No. 44, K. T., and its eminent commander for seven years, a member of Blooming Grove Park Association of Pike county, Pa., the Lawyers' Club of New York and the Albany Club. In 1865 he married Ruth, daughter of Mathias Duke, an officer in the British army stationed at Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Her grandfather, John Gallagher, was an officer in the English army at the battle of Waterloo, later was town major at St. John's, New Brunswick, and was the English officer who surrendered the possession of Eastport, Me., to the Americans at the close of the war of 1812. Mr. and Mrs. Carr have three children: Raymond W., Lewis E., Jr., and William D.

Carroll, George H., owns and conducts a grocery at No. 74 Oneida street, which his father, the late William C. Carroll, established in 1850. The latter, a pioneer here, came from New Hampshire, and was the leading grocer of his day. He was also a central figure in thedevelopment of the city of Cohoes, and an advocate of all matters pertaining to the advancement of his fellow men. His death occurred in 1884, aged seventy-four years. George H. is a native of Cohoes, born in 1851, and was associated with his father in the grocery business, and since his death has continued in the mercantile business. His wife was Sarah Harwood of Schaghticoke, N. Y.

Carroll, James H., son of John and Jane (Ballard) Carroll, was born in Albany on the 19th day of September, 1828. His parents were born in Ireland. His father arrived in this country in 1824, came to Albany the next year, and commencing business in a small way, soon followed his brother in the manufacture of burr mill stones, on Broadway. He also held several positions of trust, and was highly respected. His death occurred from an accident in 1851. James H., the subject of this sketch, was educated in the public and select schools of the city, and in 1844, at the age of seventeen entered the printing office of Joel Munsell and learned the trade, which he followed for nineteen years. Being of an active political mind, in 1862 he was elected supervisor of the old Seventh ward, and afterwards a police commissioner of the city. In 1863 he was appointed to a position in the post office under Postmaster George Dawson, and on the passage of the capital police law, accepted the captaincy of the third police precinct, which he held for nearly two years, resigning in 1867, purchasing an interest in the coal business with his brother-in-law, T. C. Rafferty. He also became interested in the Albany Stove Company, and held the position of its president and treasurer for several years, and is now one of the executive committee of St. Peter's Hospital. In 1894 Mr. Rafferty died, when he assumed sole charge, and has the most complete shed or pockets for coal now in the city. He is one of the five living members of the original Republican County Committee, and is in the enjoyment of good health. On the 28th of August, 1851, he married Jane Rafferty, daughter of the late Charles Rafferty of the city, by whom he had seven children, three now living: J. Ballard, Dr. Terence L. and Mary Ann.

Carter, William H., superintendent of the carding department of the Tivoli Mills since 1868. Mr. Carter was born in the city of Albany in 1836, and fourteen years later his father, Michael Carter, moved to Cohoes, when William went to work in the Egberts Mills, where he remained for fifteen years. He was made a foreman in 1860 and took charge of the carding department. In 1868 he became associated with Commodore A. J. Root of the Tivoli Mills, and has for nearly thirty years occupied a responsible position. In 1880 Mr. Carter began operating a mill at Troy with Mr. Corliss, but they were burned out two years later, and the venture was abandoned; meantime he had maintained his connection with the Tivoli Mills. Mr. Carter is one of the pioneer people of Cohoes. He is a member of several charitable organizations.

Cary, William M., is a native of West Troy, and was born May 28, 1866. He is the son of Joseph C. Cary, who served in the Rebellion in the 104th N. Y. Vols., and has been a compositor on the Times for thirty years. William M. Cary began the upholstering business in 1890, which he continued for two years, when he engaged in undertaking in which he has been successful. He received his education in West Troy, and is an exempt fireman, and is held in high repute both in social and business circles, as a man worthy of the confidence and respect of his fellow citizens.

Casey, Daniel, was born in Ireland, January 15, 1839, came to America and settled in Columbia county, N. Y., with his parents in 1850, and received a common school education. He held various positions until April 29, 1861, when on the first call for troops he enlisted in Co. I, 18th N. Y. V., and served for two years. In September, 1864, he re-enlisted in Co. A, 192d N. Y. V., was made quartermaster-sergeant, and later second lieutenant, and served until his discharge in October, 1865. He was in the first and second Bull Run battles, the Seven Days campaign before Richmond, South Mountain and Fredericksburg, and was three times wounded. Returning from the army he entered the Albany county clerk's office and remained there in all twenty years, being search clerk for seventeen years and deputy clerk for three years. In 1887 he formed a partnership with William Kinney, as Kinney & Casey, and engaged in the real estate business. In 1894 Mr. Kinney withdrew and Mr. Casey's son, Frank A., became a partner, under the firm name of Daniel Casey & Son. Mr. Casey was a member of the Board of Education one term, and is a member of the Dongan Club and William A. Jackson Post No. 644, G. A. R. In 1864 he married Mary McDonough of Columbia county, and their children are Mrs. Edward Futterer, Agnes E., William T. (deceased), Frank A., Joseph E., Daniel T., and Mary.

Casey, Walter V., is a son of John H. and Mary E. (Rourke) Casey, natives of Ireland and was born in Albany, April 13, 1872. John H. became a printer in the office of the Albany Knickerbocker, was made foreman of the Press and Knickerbock, and died in March, 1893, aged fifty-five. Walter V. Casey, after attending the Albany High School, accepted in August, 1887, a position with E. De L. Palmer, real estate dealer, and remained there until 1893, when he formed with Joshua F. Tobin the present real estate and fire insurance firm of Casey & Tobin. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic Union.

Cass, Lewis. This citizen of Albany, for many years prominent amony [sic] those interested in the welfare of the city, was born at Decatur, Otsego county, N. Y., December 30, 1853. His father was a farmer, and his early life was passed upon his father's farm. At the age of twelve, he was left an orphan. At the age of sixteen, he began to teach in the district schools in Otsego county, at "a dollar a day and boarded around." Afterwards he passed successfully through the State Normal School, Colgate Academy at Hamilton, N. Y., graduating from the former in 1872 and the latter in 1874. He pursued a collegiate course at Union College, and graduated from that institution in 1878. In the summer of 1878, he began to study law with the celebrated firm of Smith, Bancroft & Moak, where he remained for three years, when he opened an office of his own for the transaction of business. In 1886 he married Miss Kate Landon, eldest daughter of Judge Landon of Schenectady, N. Y. Mr. Cass early took a high rank as a lawyer, and especially as an advocate, being connected with many important litigations, notably, the case of "McDonald against the Village of Gloversville," and "The Trumbell will case" in Albany county, and many other important litigations in Circuit, Probate and Criminal Courts. He was attorney for the New York State Dairy Commissioner, and afterwards for the Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of New York for seven years, and for the past two years attorney for the New York State Veterinary Medical Society. Mr. Cass is well known as an ardent, fearless advocate of progress, and has been a potent factor in various reforms and improvements in the city, notably, the project of the construction of Beaver Park in the south portion of the city. To no one man is there more credit due for this much needed improvement than to Mr. Cass. Being a forcible and fluent public speaker, his services are eagerly sought in political cam- paigns. Although deeply interested in politics and political affairs, he has never sought nor held a political office, preferring to remain a private citizen. He has a well selected library of classic and historic literature and fiction, with which he is exceedingly familiar. He was selected in 1888, to deliver the annual address before the Adelphic Society of Union College, and chose for his subject "The Duty of the Educated Man to Business and Society." Another topic upon which he has been heard with interest and propriety is "The Puritans," which perhaps is his best known lecture. Love for his early occupation abides with him, as shown by the fact that he is one of the most successful amateur florists in the city, turning his special attention to roses, having a collection unsurpassed by any in the city.

Caulkins, George L., whose ancestors on both sides were among the early settlers here, was born in Watervliet in 1859. His father, John L. Caulkins, a prominent contractor (now deceased), came here in 1825 from Watertown, Conn. But his maternal ancestry is of riper local antiquity. His maternal grandfather, Edward Learned, was the first president of the village in 1823. George Caulkins spent some of his earlier years as an inspector of lumber, and has always resided here, except a few years when he was shipping clerk for the Pond's Extract Company at their Newport office. In 1888 Mr. Caulkins took up his present business, that of undertaking and practical embalmer, on Broadway.

Chadwick, Enoch H., was born in 1814 on the farm where the family now reside. He was a son of Aaron and Martha (Hoag) Chadwick, who went from Dutchess county to Otsego county, and finally to Rensselaerville, N. Y. and bought the farm where the family lives, and also had another farm near. He died in Rensselaerville, N. Y., in 1839. Enoch H. Chadwick was a farmer by occupation and a Republican in politics. In 1839 he married Hannah Knowles, daughter of Daniel Knowles, of Rensselaerville, and an early settler from Rhode Island. They had three children; Frances, wife of Addison Bishop of Westerlo; Lydia H., wife of Israel Frost of Rensselaerville; and Margaret, at home. Mr. Chadwick was a member of the Friends, and Mrs. Chadwick a Methodist. Mr. Chadwick died March 17, 1876.

Chadwick, P. Remsen, whose death in 1891 removed from the city of Cohoes one of its most prominent men, was a native of New York city, born in 1831. He was a resident there during the war and went out in the 7th N. Y. Regiment first, then afterwards m the 100th N.Y. Regiment, and again as adjutant-general on the staff of General Truman Seymour, serving through the entire war. Mr. Chadwick was a descendant from an old English family: his grandfather, Joseph, came from England in 1799, and settled in New York city. His father, William, built one of the Harmony Mills of Cohoes and was one of the founders of the Cohoes Company; he himself was an owner of the Ontario Mills and a well known manufacturer. He was the first captain of the Seventh Separate Company N. G. S. N. Y. of Cohoes, which he helped to organize. He left, besides his widow, one son, Robert R. Chadwick, who is engaged in an insurance agency in Albany.

Chapin, Josiah D., son of Josiah B. and Caroline (Peck) Chapin, was born in Springfield, Mass., June 13, 1842, and moved with his parents to Albany about 1848 and subsequently to Troy, N. Y., where he received a public school education. He also attended the Quincy Grammar School at Boston and Bryant & Stratton's Business College in Albany. In 1861 he became a clerk in the wholesale and retail clothing store of Davis, Craft & Wilson, with whom he remained until the firm was dissolved in 1870. He then continued with R. C. Davis & Co., clothiers, till 1876, and afterward was engaged in the merchant tailoring business in Troy. January 1, 1878, he returned to Albany and became bookkeeper for C. G. Craft, clothier, and in 1890 was admitted as partner under the firm name of C. G. Craft & Co. Mr. Craft died in March of that year and since then Mr. Chapin and Benjamin M. Secor have continued the business as surviving partners. The firm manufactures and wholesale and retails clothing on an extensive scale. Mr. Chapin served in the local militia about nine years, and is a member of Co. A, of the Old Guard. In 1874 he married Emily, daughter of Benjamin F. Moseley of Albany, and they have one daughter, Abbie, who survives.

Chapman, Edgar T., Jr., is the eldest son of the well known and prominent Episcopal clergyman. Edgar T. Chapman was born at West Troy in 1872, on the old homestead on the Troy and Albany road. Mr. Chapman began the study of law in 1891. He was graduated in 1894 and at once admitted to the county bar under the most favorable auspices, and began the practice of his profession in Albany. A younger brother, John K. Chapman, is now superintendent of the freight office for the N. Y. C. R. R., at West Albany.

Chase, Hon. Norton, son of Nelson H. Chase, a leading and respected citizen of Albany, was born in the capital city, September 3, 1861, and was graduated from the Albany Academy in 1878, winning five gold medals. The same year he entered Yale College and subsequently became a student at the Albany Law School, from which he was graduated as LL.B. and admitted to the bar in 1882. He began active practice with, and continued until the death of, Judge Samuel Hand in 1886, when he succeeded to the latter's law business. Mr. Chase was successfully connected in litigation with the Lamson Consolidated Store Service Company, involving over twenty different cases, and was also counsel for Tiffany & Company, when the State comptroller levied a tax on that corporation of $237,000, which was reduced to $6,000. He has also been identified with several criminal trials. He was for two years assistant corporation counsel of the city of Albany, and in 1885 was elected member of assembly from the Third assembly district. In 1887 he was nominated for State senator in the 17th senatorial district; the election was carried into the courts and his opponent was declared elected by a plurality of eight. In 1889 Mr. Chase was elected State senator and was the youngest man in the Senate of 1890-91. During his term he introduced the first bill extending registration throughout the county. He is a prominent Democrat of the Jeffersonian school, a ready and fluent speaker, a powerful debater and a forceful campaign orator and has been delegate to many Democratic conventions. He is a member of the Democratic and Reform Clubs of New York, is a trustee and counsel of the Albany Exchange Savings Bank, and is a member of several social and other organizations of Albany. In 1881 he was commissioned first lieutenant and appointed adjutant, and in 1886 elected major of the 10th Battalion N. G. N. Y. In 1895 he was the candidate on the Democratic ticket for the office of attorney-general of the State of New York. June 32, 1887, he married Mabel Louise, daughter of Henry L. James of Williamsburg, Mass.

Chesebro, Thaddeus, son of William Chesebro, was born in the village of Guilderland Center in 1832. Elijah, his grandfather, was a native of Stonington, Conn., born in 1759, and was of Welsh ancestry. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and settled in the town of Knox, Albany, county, in 1789. He was married the same year to Thankful Williams, who was born in 1769, and also of Welsh ancestry. They had nine children; Eunice, who died when ten years of age; Hannah, Elijah, Jane, Mary, Lucy, Williams, Esther, and Sarah Ann. He died May 6, 1808, and his wife died May 22, 1858. Their son Elijah was a soldier in the war of 1812 and died in 1860. Williams, the father of Thaddeus, was born in the town of Knox. July 22, 1802. He began life for himself when twenty-four years of age. He became a blacksmith by trade and about 1826 moved to the village of Guilderland Center and purchased a blacksmith shop and carried on business there until 1836, when he sold out his shop and purchased 100 acres of heavy timber land, which now comprises the farm of Thaddeus Chesebro. His wife was Roxana Chapman, daughter of Jonas and Susan Chapman of Knox. The children are Thaddeus, Sarah, Esther, Mary, Jesse and Charles. He died in 1877 and his wife died in 1881 at the age of seventy-nine. Thaddeus received a common school education, and at the age of twelve his father set him to hauling cord wood and produce to the city of Albany. At this pursuit he continued until he grew into manhood. Several years before the death of his father he assumed full control of the farm business. Since then he has added to his estate forty acres of woodland and erected a large wagon house and barns. For some years past he has given considerable attention to dairying and possesses an excellent lot of grade Jersey cows. In 1856 he married Miss Gertrude, daughter of Wendell Vine, who was a prominent man in Guilderland, where he was supervisor. Mr. and Mrs. Chesebro have two children: Mrs. Edna Grafters of Newtonville and Mrs. Carrie Goodrich of Pasadena, Cal.

Christiansen, Alfred, in 1867 was transferred to Watervliet Arsenal, one of the ablest master mechanics whose services the post has ever been able to secure. He not only possessed the sterling qualities characteristic of his countrymen of the "Land of the Midnight Sun," for he is a native of Christiania, Norway, but also the widest experience in his line of work which a man could have. He was born in 1856 and educated in the Royal Polytechnic Institute, graduating with the degree of Mechanical Engineer. Before locating at Philadelphia, Pa, he taught mathematics and mathematical drawing at his native place. He was with the Baldwin Locomotive Works for one year, then with William Sellers & Co., a large establishment of Philadelphia, for two years. In Boston he was chief draughtsman and master mechanic; thence he came to Watervliet. Among the many clubs and societies with which he is associated may be mentioned the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Railroad Club of that city, and the Masonic order, in which he is of high rank, being presiding officer of the Hudson River Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.

Clapp, Augustus Henly, was born in Albany, August 18, 1865. He is a descendant of Richard Clapp of Dorset, England, whose son Thomas, born 1597, came to America in 1833. He first settled in Scituate, Mass., but soon removed to Dorchester, Mass., of which town he enrolled as freeman in 1638. In 1649 he was deputy to the General Court; died April 20, 1684. His wife's name was Abigail. Their son, Thomas, born May 15, 1639, died 1703, married Mary Fisher. They were the parents of Samuel, born August, 1682; he married first, Elizabeth Fethers, second Bertha Dean; parents of Samuel, born July 6, 1710, married Mary Dean. He represented his town in the General Court; parents of Noah, born 1747, died November 10, 1820. He married Olive Shepard, who died in 1845 at ninety-one years. They were the parents of Reuel Clapp, born April 4. 1792, who in early manhood came to Albany, N. Y., where he became its chief builder and contractor. During the last thirteen years of his life he was principal proprietor and manufacturer of Townsend's Sarsaparilla, in its day a most popular and curative medicine. He died of heart-failure January 14, 1850. He married, June 26, 1816 Eliza, daughter of Roelof and Catharine Coon, of Holland descent, by whom six children were born, all of whom are dead, leaving no descendants. After death of Eliza he married Sarah, sister of his first wife, December 23, 1830, to whom one daughter, Sarah, was born February 29, 1832, died September 25, 1859, married Thomas B. Van Alstyne 1851; left surviving her, son, Thomas B. Van Alstyne, of Tustin, Cal., lawyer and fruit grower. After the death of his second wife Mr. Clapp again married, January 13, 1836, Huldah Miles, daughter of the Rev. Noah Miles of Temple, N. H.; she survived her husband and died in her eighty-eighth year, February 12, 1891. Of her marriage four children were born, two of whom died in infancy: Charles, born February 2, 1839, died December 13, 1873; Edwin Apollos, born June 19, 1840, died October 13, 1880, who after receiving an academic education became a druggist and pharmacist; he served in the Rebellion as assistant surgeon 25th N. Y. Vols.; he married Josephine, daughter of the late Edward Henly of Albany. Four children, Reuel Frederick, Augustus Henly, Marie Josephine and Cora Miles, survive. Augustus was educated in the Albany schools and at fourteen became a clerk in the book store of Bernard Quinn, with whom he remained twelve years. In May, 1892, he started his present book, stationery and periodical business.

Clark, Willam B., was born in New York city in 1858, but has been a resident of Cohoes since he was four years of age. He began business life empty handed, but possessed the sterling qualities of his Scotch ancestors, and has achieved substantial success. In every department of the milling business he has labored, and was eight years in the plumbing business, putting in heating apparatus in the Cascade Mills and other large buildings. The Continental Knitting Company was organized in 1891 as the Clark & Wilson, but John C. Bennett is now the junior partner. He is a member of both the Masonic fraternity and the I. O. O. F.

Clarke, John Mason, M. A., is a descendant of William Clarke, of England, who came to Dorchester, Mass , in 1637, settled in Northampton in 1656, and was a representative at the General Court for seventeen years (see life of William Clarke, by John M. Clarke, 1892). Descendants of this family still live at Northampton but various of its branches moved to Lebanon, New London and Saybrook, Conn. William Clarke, great-grandfather of John M., bought with three others from Phelps & Gorham, the present town of Naples, Ontario county, and there his grandson, Noah T., was born in 1817. The latter was for nearly forty years principal of the Canandaigua Academy and is one of the few survivors of the original University Convocation. He married Laura M. Merrill, of Caslleton, Vt., who died in 1887. John M. Clarke, the fifth of their six children, born in Canandaigua, April 15, 1857, was graduated from the academy in 1874 and from Amherst College in 1877, and for one year was instructer in geology in the latter institution. He taught a year each in the Canandaigua and Utica Academies, in 1881-82 was professor of geology in Smith College, and then spent two years in studying geology, zoology and mineralogy at the University of Gottingen, Germany. In 1885 he returned to Smith College, and thereafter became lecturer on geology at the Massachusetts State College. In January, 1886, he was appointed by the Regents of the University of the State of New York to special work on the geological survey, and soon after to his present position of assistant State geologist and paleontologist at Albany. Since 1895 he has also been professor of geology and mineralogy in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy. In 1880 Amherst College conferred upon him the degree of M. A. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Geological Societies of Germany and Westphalia, the Imperial Mineralogical Society of St. Petersburg, and the Psi Upsilon and Phi Beta Kappa fraternities; and since 1894 has been an editor of the American Geologist. His writings cover a wide field of technical and scientific literature. In 1887 he married Emma, daughter of Joseph Juel, of Philadelphia, Pa., who died March 18, 1893. leaving a son, Noah T. October 33, 1895, he married Mrs. Fannie (Hoffman) Bosler, also of Philadelphia. Professor Clarke's mother, a daughter of Selah H. and Laura (Mason) Merrill, was connected with the families of Elder Brewster of the Plymouth Colony, Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut. John Brown of Harper's Ferry fame, Gov. William Bradford and John Mason, the Pequod Indian fighter.

Classen, Frederick Luke, M. D., was born in Albany, N. Y., July 7, 1857. He is of Holland-Dutch and English descent. His grandfather, Hermann Classen, was a distinguished soldier in the German army, and after the battle of Waterloo, was by the Emperor Frederic decorated with the Iron Cross, a mark of the greatest honor. This cross descends to the oldest son of each generation and is now in the possession of Dr. Classen. Dr. Classen received his early education in the public schools and the Albany High School, after leaving which be entered the drug store of Dexter & Nelligar, and while learning pharmacy there attended the Albany Medical College, from which he was graduated, receiving his degree in 1881. He immediately opened an office and began the practice of medicine. In November, 1888, he was appointed coroner's physician and held the place for three consecutive terms. Dr. Classen is a member of the New York State Medical Society and the Albany County Medical Society. He is a prominent member of the Masonic order, being a 32° Mason. He is also a trustee of the First Presbyterian church. In July, 1891, he made an extended tour through Europe. Dr. Classen married Ella J. McCracken, and has one son, Philip Luke Classen.

Clough, William, established his present mercantile business in Cohoes in 1857, and carries a various line of groceries, tinware, drugs, dry goods and hosiery. He is a pioneer settler of Cohoes, coming here in 1851, where he worked six years for the Harmony Co., as foreman of one department. He was born in England in 1820, and was a spinner by trade. He came to America in 1848, and was one of the fire wardens before organization of the city of Cohoes in 1869. He was assessor twice and held many minor offices. In politics he is a Republican.

Clyckman, Frederick L., was born in the town of Knox, July 1, 1819, a son of Lawrence Clyckman, who was born in the same town about 1778, who was one of two sons and two half-brothers, sons of a native of Germany who served in the Revolutionary war, was a farmer by occupation, and began farming in the town of Knox, where he cleared a farm and built a log house and where he lived till his death, at the age of eighty years. Lawrence, the father of Frederick L., also spent his life as a successful farmer in the same town, owning a fine farm of 150 acres; he was a volunteer in the war of 1812; his wife was Maria Batcher, and their children were Jacob, Mary, Frederick, Gertrude, Adaline, Elida, Katie, Margaret and Sarah. Mr. Clyckman was an elder in the Lutheran church for a number of years. Frederick L. Clyckman remained on the homestead with his father until he was thirty-eight years of age, when he came to Guilderland and bought a farm of 100 acres, where he has since resided; by industry and perseverance he has paid for his farm, erected good and commodious buildings, and made many other improvements; he is an up-to-date and prosperous farmer. In 1850 he married Eva, daughter of Peter Walker, who bore him two children, Angelica M. and Jessie F. His second wife was Lydia, daughter of Conrad Batcher of Knox, who bore him one child, Jane A. Mr. Clyckman has been deacon and elder in the Lutheran church for several years. The oldest daughter, Angelica, married William J. Alkenbrack of New Scotland in November, 1884; Jessie married William D. Relyea of New Scotland in November, 1882; and Jane A. married Shubael C. Jaycox of Bethlehem, March 14, 1892.

Cohn, Mark, born in New York city, November 20, 1852, removed with his parents about 1861 to Albany, where his father, Louis Cohn, was engaged in the wholesale and retail clothing business until his death in 1877. He was educated in the public schools and Levi Cass's private school of Albany, read law in the office of Hand & Hale, Hon. Jacob H. Clute and Peckham & Tremain. He attended the Columbia Law School and received the degree of LL. B. from the Albany Law School in 1873 and was admitted to the bar in 1874. Since them he has been in the active practice of his profession. He is a Democrat, a member of the Albany Press Club and in 1892 was appointed assistant district attorney. In 1878 he married Sara Oppenheim of Albany, and they have two daughters, Olma and Therese.

Colburn, E. S., & Son. Edwin S. Colburn, son of Jonathan Colburn, was born in Jewett City, Conn., January 5, 1829, and for about thirty years was engaged in farming at New Baltimore, N. Y., where he still resides. In 1884 he was engaged in the commission business under the firm name of Colburn & Smith; in 1886 he purchased part of the present confectionery and ice cream business in Albany, and a partnership was formed under the firm name of Rawson & Colburn, which in 1888, became Rawson, Colburn & Co. In 1888 this firm was succeeded by Mr. Colburn as sole owner and in 1894 he admitted his son, Edwin E. to partnership, under the present style of K. S. Colburn & Son.

Cole, Ashley W., was born November 23, 1841, in the Forest of Bere, Hampshire, England. His father died in 1848 and in 1849 his mother came with her family to the United States. Mr. Cole was educated in the common schools, and soon afterward worked at the busiuess of manufacturing blacking and ink, and later worked two years in a brick yard. During the war he enlisted in the 10th Regiment of New Jersey Yolunteers and at the close of the war, in August, 1865, went into the oil region of Pennsylvania, obtaining employment at Oil City in running a steam engine pumping an oil well. While so engaged he completed his studies in shorthand writing, which he had begun in the army. In 1866 he came to New York seeking employment in journalism, and in August of that year was appointed on the staff of the New York Herald. Three years later he became city editor and held that position until his health became impaired. Mr. Bennett then sent him to the West Indies and South America on a tour which occupied sixteen months. This journey required him to visit nearly every West India Island and was extended down the west coast of South America, through the Straits of Magellan and up the east coast. Mr. Cole crossed the Andes twice and experienced various adventures in the form of earthquake, yellow fever and revolution. While at Rio Janeiro he interviewed the Emperor Don Pedro, particularly on the subject of the abolition of slavery in the empire, the bill providing for which had just been passed by the Brazilian Parliament. Returning to New York he rejoined the Herald staff, and soon afterward became managing editor of the Evening Telegram. In 1874 he left the service of the Herald and joined the staff of the New York Times, soon afterward becoming financial editor of that paper, and later its Albany correspondent. In 1882 he became private secretary to the late Rufus Hatch, and was identified with that gentleman in the Yellow Stone National Park enterprise, which, however, collapsed in 1884, when the Northern Pacific Railroad went into the hands of a receiver. Mr. Cole then returned to journalism on the staff of the New York Herald, and remained there until the fall of 1887, when he resigned to organize the city staff of the Press and became the first city editor of that paper. In 1888 he went into Wall street as general manager of the Kiernan News Company, a concern whose specialty was the furnishing by ticker and bulletins of information to bankers and railway and financial corporations. In the fall of 1894, shortly after Governor Morton was nominated for the governorship, Mr. Cole was invited to become his private secretary, and has continued with him in that capacity until the present time. He has been a member of the New York Press Club for over twenty years and was twice elected vice-president. He is also a member of the 23d Regiment, N. G. N. Y., of Brooklyn and is now assistant chief of Artillery, State of New York, with the rank of colonel. He has contributed to various magazines sketches of the civil war, of foreign travel and of the Yellowstone country.

Cole, Frederick S., M. D., has but recently located at West Troy, but is a native of the county. He was born in the town of Westerlo, February 22, 1864, where his boyhood was passed. Prior to entering college he studied medicine in the office of Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, the celebrated specialist of Philadelphia. This experience was of great benefit, Dr. Mitchell being a recognized authority on nervous disease. In 1888 Dr. Cole graduated from Columbia College and then entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons for a three years' course, becoming a full-fledged Esculapian in 1891, and beginning practice in Long Island, during which period he acquired some valuable hospital experience, and attended McLean's Maternity Hospital and the Vanderbilt Clinic. His training has been thorough and no doubt his success will become commensurate. He recently opened a drug store at No. 416 Fourteenth street, West Troy.

Cole, William S., was born in 1832. He was the son of Charles, and the grandson of Shubael, who came from Rhode Island to Coeymans in 1795. He had seven sons: Lanson, Nathan, George, Charles, Hardy, David and Merritt. Charles Cole had two sons: Madison and William S. William S. had one son and two daughters: William, Mrs. Stephen Tompkins, and Mrs. Jessie Hotaling. He bought a farm at Indian Fields, where he has always been a prominent and successful farmer.

Coleman, J. Russell, son of J. Russell and Jennie E. (Bailey) Coleman, was born in West Troy, Albany county, October 31, 1869. He finished the course of instruction in the Troy (N. Y.) Academy in 1886, and entered his father's office as a clerk, where he remained two years, when he accepted a clerkship in the National Bank of Troy, where he rapidly rose to the position of head bookkeeper. Mr. Coleman is a member of the Troy Citizens Corps. July 18, 1894, he married Marion Grace, daughter of W. S. Booth of Troy, and they have one son, J. Russell, Jr.

Collin, Capt. T. Campbell, is city edititor of the Cohoes Daily News, of which be is one of the stockholders, and was for three years superintendent of the Granite Knitting Mills, with which he had been connected as an employee for fourteen years. He was born at Leicester, England, in 1856, and brought by his parents to America the following year. He is a Republican in politics and has advanced to the front, now serving his fifth term as alderman from the Fourth ward. In 1890 he was nom- inated for mayor, and officiated three years as water commissioner. At the twentieth anniversary of the Seventh Separate Company of the N. G. S. N. Y., held in 1896, he was the only one left of the original members. Since its organization in Febru- ary, 1876, he has been closely identified with the fortunes of the company, entering first as a private, and serving in all the grades, gradually rising towards the position of captain, to which he was promoted in 1890. In 1893 the company presented him with an elegant gold-mounted sword; he also has a beautiful gold watch, presented him by the George Campbell Hose Company, of which he was a member for ten years. He has held many offices in the Masonic fraternity of the highest degree.

Collins, Hon. Lorenzo D., was born in the town of Whitehall, Washington county, July 13, 1821. He is of Puritan ancestry and Revolutionary stock, both grandfathers having served in the Revolutionary war. His father, Daniel Collins, fought in the war of 1813. Mr. L. D. Collins received a district school education and when nineteen years of age, left his father's farm and located in West Troy, Albany county, where two years later, he opened a canal barn and grocery and provision store. He was a member of the old Whig party and when the Republican party was formed in 1856, he became a member and has been very active ever since. Mr. Collins was trustee of the village of West Troy in 1853 and the next year was chosen village president; in 1859 and 1860, he was a member of the Assembly and in 1866 was elected State senator. While in the Senate, he was chairman of the committee on canals and in 1867 introduced in the Senate a bill for the erection of the New Capitol building, which he had passed. Every bill he introduced, while in the Legislature, was passed and became law. In 1865 he was a delegate to the International Convention at Detroit, Mich. In 1895 when the town of Watervliet was divided and the town of Colonie erected, Mr. Collins was chosen the first supervisor and was re-elected in the spring of 1896. He was named by Governor Morton as one of the delegates from New York to the National Farmers' Congress and Good Roads Parliament, which were held at Atlanta, Ga., during the Cotton States and International Exposition in 1895. He is president of the State Farmers' League and chairman of the executive committee of the New York State Farmers' Congress, both of which were organized largely through his individual efforts. Mr. Collins was a director of the Union National Bank of Troy, for twenty years, and was for six years captain of the Light Guards, a military company of West Troy, Albany county. He is a charter member of Evening Star Lodge, No. 75, F. & A. M., of West Troy.

Condon, William R., born in Albany, September 28, 1870, is a son of Thomas A. and Helen J. (Keeney) Condon, and a grandson of James Condon, a native of Ireland, who settled in Albany when seventeen years of age and died here in May, 1896, aged eighty eight. James was one of the first dyers in the capital city and continued in that business for fifty years. He also served as alderman and supervisor. He married Margaret J. Hennessy, who died at the age of thirty-five, leaving nine children, all deceased. Thomas A. Condon, born in 1851, was a manufacturer of mattresses, deputy sheriff and a detective on the police force, and died March 8, 1895. His wife died October 13, 1894, leaving two children, William R. and Mary J. William R. Condon, when fifteen, became a clerk in the Albany freight office of the D. & H. C. Co., where he remained nine years. February 15, 1896, he formed a copartnership with Joseph A. Wisely, as Condon & Wisely, and engaged in the retail business of hats, caps, men's furnishings, etc. December 15, 1891, he became a member of Co. B, 10th Bat., N. G. N. Y. On June 6, 1894, he married Madeline D., daughter of William Bailie of Albany.

Conger, Hon. Frederick W., was born in the town of Berne, July 16, 1838. His grandfather, William Conger, was born in the town of Bethlehem in 1770; he was a lifelong farmer, spending most of his life in the town of Berne, having gone thither with his parents; his wife was Margaret McKnab of New Scotland, a daughter of a Revolutionary soldier, by whom he had eleven children; he died in 1840, his wife in 1855. Hugh Conger, the father of Frederick, was born on the homestead in Berne in 1804; he was a farmer and also engaged in the stone industry, owning and operating his own quarries; he was prominently identified with the Republican party, filling the office of justice of the peace for several terms and justice of sessions; in 1867 and 1869 he represented his district in the State Legislature; his wife was Hannah Ward, who was born in the town of Berne, on the farm now owned and occupied by Frederick W. Conger. Her father was Frederick Ward, who came from Westchester county, and their children were Cordelia, Jane, Mariette, Eunice, Frederick W., Manley W. and Frances M. Mr. Conger was for many years a member of the Odd Fellows fraternity. Frederick W. Conger attended the common schools and remained with his parents until he was twenty-two, when he began for himself on his Grandfather Ward's farm. Here he remained and cared for his grandparents in their declining years to the time of their deaths, and on this farm he has ever since resided; he not only owns this farm, but in 1891 he purchased the original Conger homestead of 112 acres; he also owns a one-third interest in his father's homestead and quarry of 117 acres. He is an extensive dealer in flagstone, known as the Helderberg blue stone; he is also one of the Albany County Blue Stone Company, doing an extensive quarrying and shipping business. Mr. Conger is a staunch and leading Democrat and for five consecutive years was elected to represent the town on the Board of Supervisors. In 1868 and '88 he represented his district in the Stale Legislature, in 1894 he received the nomination on his party ticket for sheriff of Albany county, and the times arenumerous that he has been chosen delegate to town Assembly and State conventions. In 1869 he married Orsavill Cole, who was born m Berne, a daughter of John and Abigail (Fisher) Cole, and they have two children, Hugh and Frank, the former being inspector of election.

Conway, Cornelius, is the elder son of the late Hugh Conway, a life-long resident of Cohoes. The latter at the time of his death, January 14, 1896, was operating in the partnership of Mr. Hugh Graham, the largest and finest grocery in the city. They came to the present location, 13 and 15 Willow street, in 1884, and erected the large and commodious double store. Mr. Conway began business as a humble clerk for Graham & Stanton, but in 1871 he purchased Mr. William Stanton's interests. Mr. Graham retired soon after the death of Mr. Conway and the firm is now known as Conway & Co.

Conway, John J., has always resided in his native place, West Troy, and also obtained his education there. He spent three years in acquiring the stone cutter's trade, at which business he has been engaged since 1883. He was county committee-man in 1889, 1890, and 1891, and justice of the peace, to which office he was elected in 1890 and was re-elected in 1896. Mr. Conway was born in 1858 in the house in which he still resides. The house is one of the oldest of the town, being built by his father, Thomas Conway, an early settler. The latter, now deceased, was a mason by trade and a veteran of Company I, 93d New York State Volunteers.

Conway, Joseph A., is the son of Michael and Ann Conway, who removed from New York city to Albany in 1858. Michael was for many years connected with the Albany police force, was the first captain of the present police department, was a mason by trade, and was deputy county sheriff at the time of his death, May 5, 1880. Joseph A. Conway, born October 37, 1858, in Albany, was educated in the High School and in the fall of 1875 became a student in the law office of Hawley & McNamara, with whom he began active practice upon his admission to the bar in 1880. Later he formed a law copartnership with his brother, Martin D. Conway, afterward surrogate, which continued for six years. Since then he has practiced alone. He was the Democratic candidate for judge of the Justice's Court in the spring of 1880, but was defeated, though he ran 900 ahead of his ticket. In 1887 his brother was elected police justice, but after serving eighteen months resigned and was elected county surrogate. October 38, 1890, Mr. Conway married Louisa A., daughter of Frank Maxsteadt of Albany. They have had three children, all deceased.

Conyes, L. E., was born in Rensselaerville in 1849. He is the son of Garret and the grandson of James Conyes, who came from Germany. Mr. Conyes followed farming in Rensselaerville until 1886, when, after spending two years in Florida and California, he came to Ravena and opened a hotel opposite the depot which he now runs. Since 1893 he has also been in partnership with C. L. Diston in the coal business, and also handling brick, sewer pipe and fertilizers. He is a member of Cascade Lodge F. & A. M., and of the Capital City Chapter of Albany.

Cook, Alfred, son of William J. and Margaret (Risk) Cook, was born in Albany, June 3, 1858, was educated at the Boys' Academy and was graduated from the Albany Normal College in 1878. Shortly afterwards he obtained a situation as assistant bookkeeper with Haskell & Gallup, wholesale dealers in coffees, teas and spices, where he remained until they went out of business in 1881, when he engaged with Tracy, Wolverton & Wilson, wholesale grocers, as shipper. Serving in this capacity for about six months, he was promoted to represent the concern on the road. In 1883 Mr. Wolverton retired and the business was carried on by Tracy & Wilson. Mr. Cook continued to represent them until 1888, when he became the junior member of the concern of Tracy, Wilson & Cook. In 1890 he purchased the entire business and is now located at No. 45 Hudson avenue, as a wholesale jobber in tea, coffee and spices. He is one of the charter members of the Albany Commercial Travelers' Club, a member of the Commercial Travelers' Mutual Accident Association of America and honorary member of the Fort Johnson Club, Johnstown, N. Y. His father came to Albany from Galway, N. Y., and was engaged in the wholesale grocery business until his death, being a member of the firms of Cook & Wing, and Cook, Wing & Wooster.

Cook, Daniel H., M.D., of Albany, N. Y., son of Philo and Sarah M. Van Natten Cook, was born July 6, 1849, in the town of New Scotland, Albany county, N. Y. On his father's side he is a descendant of Elias Cook who came from England about the year 1600, and with twelve others purchased from the Agum and Montauk tribes of Indians the towns of South and East Hampton on the east end of Long Island. His mother is of Holland extraction. When he was fourteen years of age, his parents moved to Albany that he might have the school advantages afforded by the capital city. In 1874 he received the degree of M.D. from the Albany Medical College, taking first prize in obstetrics, that being the only competitive examination given that year. He opened an office in Albany, and in May, 1879, married Miss Katherine F., daughter of William and Eliza Wentworth Crew of Albany. The Wentworth family trace their lineage back to Reginald, the lord of Wentworth, England, 1066. He has two children, Katherine F., born in 1883, and Daniel H. born in 1884. He has held numerous positions, namely, that of lecturer in the Albany Medical College, dispensary physician at the Albany Hospital, physician of the Lathrop Memorial, president of the Albany Academy of Medicine, president of the Albany County Medical Society, delegate to different State Medical societies from the New York State Medical Society, etc. In 1894 he was appointed a member of the Board of Health of the city, a position which he now holds, and is active in promoting the cause of sanitation. In medicine he is still fond of obstetrics and diseases of women. His practice is large and lucrative, and for diversion he owns a stock farm at Altamont, N. Y., where he makes a specialty of raising Brown Swiss cattle and standard breeds of horses.

Cook, Eugene, born in Berne, N. Y., July 10, 1846, is a son of Abram and Jane (Crocker) Cook, both born in Albany county, he a son of David Cook who came to Albany county in an early day and settled in Berne, N. Y. The maternal grandfather of Eugene Cook was Rev. Mr. Crocker, an early settler of Berne, where he reared a large family. The father of Eugene Cook was a farmer, and died in Berne in 1866. Eugene Cook was reared on a farm and educated in the common schools and Rensselaer Academy. He was for several years engaged in the sale of stove shelves and Horton's washing machines; and also in the livery business in Illinois, but his principal occupation is farming, and in 1866 he removed to the farm of 156 acres, he owns. He is a Democrat in politics, but does not aspire to public office. In 1869 he married Augusta Lounsbury, a daughter of William Lounsbury. To Mr. Cook and wife were born three children: Alice, wife of Charles Mackey, Arcia and Reba B. The family attend the Methodist church.

Cook, Hon. John T., was born in Albany, February 22, 1854, and is the eldest child of John and Martha Cook. His father, a native of Boston, Lincolnshire, England, came to this country and settled in Albany in 1848. John T. Cook was educated at the public schools of his native city and in the autumn of 1868 entered the "Albany Free Academy," now Albany High School, where he remained about a year. After learning a trade he, in 1876, entered the office of Smith, Bancroft & Moak as a clerk and student at law and prosecuted his studies until 1879, when he was admitted to the bar at the January term of the Supreme Court. He remained with Smith, Moak & Buchanan, the survivors of the old firm, until the spnng of 1884, when he established an office for the general practice of his profession. He has edited the "Eastern Reporter" and "English Reports," and in connection with Irving Browne, then editor of the Albany Law Jouraal, he engaged in preparing Weed, Parsons & Co's. edition of the reprint of the New York Court of Appeals Reports, which is still under his charge. His annotated edition of the Penal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure of New York State is held in high estimation by the legal profession. The Albany Law Journal says: "Mr. Cook is one of the most experienced, industrious, and capable law editors in this country and in these two volumes gives admirable evidence of comprehensive research and accurate discrimination." He has a choice library containing 2,000 volumes, besides a select private collection of books on general literature. Mr. Cook is the present assistant district attorney of Albany county, and in 1894 represented the Seventeenth ward in the Common Council of 1894-96.

Cooper, John L., Dr., son of Jacob L. and Mary J. (Core) Cooper, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 17, 1857. He was graduated from the Philadelphia High School in 1874, attended Pierce's Business College and the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, graduating from the latter in 1877, with the degree of M. D. He was resident physician in the Philadelphia Hospital for a short time after graduation and practiced in Philadelphia until 1880, when he came to Albany, where he has since resided. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society, Masters Lodge No. 5, F. & A. M., Capital City Chapter No. 243, R. A. M., De Witt Clinton Council No. 22, R. & S. M., Temple Commandery No. 2, K. T., Cypress Temple, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. November 3, 1880, he married Anna, daughter of Mathew Wallace of Albany, and they have two children: John L. and Elizabeth W.

Cook, John B., was born in Troy in 1856, and was a son of Robert Cook, who came from Scotland in 1854 and was in the employ of the Burden Iron Company, then H. Burden & Sons, in the capacity of foreman until his death in 1873. Mr. Cook served an apprenticeship to the machinist trade with that company. He received his education in the public schools of Troy, and later took private lessons in mathematics, mechanical engineering and drawing. Mr. Cook has been associated with the Watervliet Arsenal for twelve years as foreman of the metal work carried on in the shops east of the canal, and has had charge of the construction of the plant at the gun shop under the supervision of the constructing engineer.

Corliss, Stephen Potter, was born in Albany, N. Y., July 26, 1842, and received his education there, which was completed about the time of the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion. He at once enlisted as a private, was promoted through the regular positions to that of captain, was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel for great gallantry and distinguished bravery at the capture of the Southside Railroad, April 2, 1865, and was also voted a medal by the Congress of the United States for his conduct at this time; spent about three months in Libby Prison in Richmond, Va., served upon the staffs of Brig.-Gen. John Ramsey and Major-Gen. Nelson A. Miles— with the latter went to Fortress Monroe, Va., to assist in the care of Jefferson Davis, then a prisoner there; finally upon his own request was discharged from the United States army, December 16, 1866. Returning to his native city, he was soon occupied in the pursuits of a mercantile life. March 1, 1866, he entered the employment of Charles H. Strong, then a wholesale clothier in Albany, N. Y., as a commercial traveler, and covered the territory of Michigan, Ohio and Illinois. In January, 1869, Mr. Strong retired from business and Colonel Corliss was at once engaged by Messrs. Davis Craft & Wilson, at this time one of the largest manufacturers of clothing in our country. He remained through the various changes in this firm until July 1, 1887, when he entered the service of Hackett, Carhart & Co., of New York, whom he now represents. He has from the time he entered the ranks of the commercial travelers been a conspicuous member and foremost in advocating and working for whatever shall tend to add to their good name and advance their interests as a class; was a charter member of, and for ten years has been president of the Albany Commercial Travelers Club; is first vice-president Commercial Travelers Home Association of America, and also holds the same position in the Commercial Travelers Mutual Accident Association of the United States; is also a prominent member of the Masonic order, of the military order of the Loyal Legion, andof the Grand Army of the Republic, of which he was department commander in 1873 and 1874; also served upon the staff of Major-Gen. Joseph B. Carr, who commanded the 3d Division National Guard of our State; was for years a member of the staff of the Washington Continentals, and later was captain of Co. B, 10th Battalion N. G. S. N. Y.

Courchaine, William, was born in St. George, P. V., in 1856, and is a son of William Courchaine, coming here in 1863. In 1865 he entered Harmony Mills, remain- ing until twenty-two years of age as a weaver, later he peddled vegetables, and in 1880 established his present grocery. He served his first public office as hospital commissioner. Mr. Courchaine is president of St. Jean Baptist Society ; it is a social and benevolent organization. He has for nine years been trustee of the Church of Sacre Coeur. He is supervisor of the Sixth ward of tlie city of Cohoes, and proves a very efficient and popular official.

Court, Charles, was born in Coeymans in 1860, and is a son of Edward, who came from England and settled at Aquetuck in about 1856, where he built a wagon shop and carried on business until his death. Mr. Court, after attending the district school, went to the State Normal School at Albany, where he was graduated, and has been a teacher for several winters. In 1882 he bought the store at Aquetuck, which he has since carried on, and since 1892 he has been postmaster. He married Griffina, daughter of Isaac Tompkins, by whom two sons and one daughter have been born: Jesse, Paul, Helen.

Courtney, Dickinson, son of Joseph and Mary (Gray) Courtney, who came to Albany from Ireland about 1830, was born in the capital city, August 10, 1850. His father, who died in 1854, was a prominent Democrat, served as alderman of the Second (now the Fourth) ward and several terms as city assessor and was engaged in the grocery and building stone business. His mother died in 1882. Mr. Courtney attended the public schools and the Albany Academy and in 1865 entered the attorney-general's office, where he remained seven years, becoming chief clerk. In February, 1872, he entered the employ of Hiram E. Sickels (who died in July, 1895), State reporter, and has ever since been connected with that office. In 1877 he married Louise A. Weaver of Albany, and they have one son living: Dickinson Courtney, Jr.

Couse, David, was born in Bethlehem in 1827 and is the son of David, born in 1803, and grandson of Adam Couse, who came from Germany in 1784 and settled in Bethlehem and had six sons: John, Matthew, William, Peter, Jacob and David, father of the subject. Mr. Couse came to Slingerlands in 1839, where he has since been a farmer. He was elected justice in 1872, which office he has held continuously ever since; he has also been town clerk and collector and was for some years assistant assessor for the revenue department. He has four sons: Andrew, David, Frank and Robert.

Cox, James W., Jr., was born on the northeast corner of Maiden Lane and Chapel street, Albany, N. Y., April 14, 1859, and is the oldest son of the late Dr. James W. Cox. He received his education in the Albany Academy, graduating in 1877. He possessed a very delicate constitution and in order to gain strength he spent four years in the employ of the Hon. Erastus Corning on his stock farm near Kenwood, Albany county, N. Y. In 1881 Mr. Corning appointed Mr. Cox as his private secretary, which position he still occupies. In the spring of 1895, Mr. Cox organized the Albany Felt Company and Mr. Cox was elected its president. He now devotes considerable time to the business. Mr. Cox has been for fifteen years a trustee and secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany City Homoeopathic and Dispensary Association and for fourteen years a trustee of the Albany City Savings Institution, and is the chairman of the Bond and Mortgage Committee. He is a member of the Fort Orange Club, Society of the Colonial Wars, Sons of the American Revolution and Society of the War of 1812. In December, 1885, he married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Riggs, of Baltimore, Md. They have three children: James W., 3d., Thomas Riggs and Margaret Riggs.

Cox, John, son of George W. and Jane (Morgan) Cox, was born in Walsall, Staffordshire, England, in 1850. He attended the common school and learned the trade of brass finisher in the town and vicinity of Walsall, which is eight miles from Birmingham. In 1870 he came to America and settled in Albany, N. Y., where he followed his trade as a journeyman for Orr & Blair. This firm afterwards changed hands and became well know as Blair & Kinnear. Mr. Cox remained with this firm three years and in 1873 bought the business of Henry McElroy who owned a brass manufactory, where Mr. Cox is now located. In February, 1891, together with Philip Wendell Parks, A. C. Graves, A. B. Brown, P. F. Gaynor and H. E. Bailey, he organized the Cox Brass Manufacturing Company of which he is now vice-president and general manager. The company does a large business in its Albany factory and has a salesroom at No. 193 Center street, New York. In 1873 Mr. Cox married the daughter of Wm. W. Chandler of Albany. They have four children: John W., William G., Margaret Jane and Theodore M.

Crandall, George H., prominent among the business men of Cohoes and a large operator in builders' material of all kinds, as well as a manufacturer of furniture. Mr. Crandall was born at Adams, N. Y., in 1839, of old Connecticut ancestors; his father, the late John M. Crandall, was an extensive operator in lumber and real estate in Lewis and Jefferson counties. George H. Crandall first engaged in business as a keeper of a general store at Glendale, N. Y., from 1861 to 1868, and then ran a lumber yard for two years at Hoboken, N. J., furnishing material for the building trades. Then from 1870 to 1872, in Breslau, near Babylon. L. I., buying agent for all kinds of material to build about 400 houses; and from 1872 to 1878 managing a store and a large saw mill in Lewis county, N. Y., and wholesaling lumber and all kinds of turned work and dimension lumber, in New York city and vicinity; and from 1878 to 1881 engaged in the furniture business, traveling by canal with four canal boats, stopping from three to ten days in each city and town along the Erie Canal. This was a profitable business, as he could undersell all local dealers, until they got a special law passed by Legislature allowing each incorporated town and city to charge him a license of $25 per day; this he could not stand, and he decided to settle in Cohoes and build a factory and store and manufacture furniture and sell at retail. The disastrous fire of 1891 was a serious check, but his indomitable energy soon replaced the plant. The Crandalls career has been characterized by the qualities which makes success certain and failure an unknown word; he has done a good deal in the building line himself, having erected about 100 dwellings in the vicinity of Cohoes and Lansingburgh.

Crannell, Monroe.Standing on the sidewalk on Broadway, New York, one may look through the picket fence that surrounds Trinity church-yard, and read on a tomb stone near the inscription marking the burial place of Robert Crannell and Molly Winslow, his wife. From this English stock down through several generations of ancestors of Huguenot and Dutch blood, Monroe Crannell was born in the city of Albany. He was educated at the Classical Institute, and at the Albany Academy, and was graduated from the Albany Law School before he attained his majority. He continued his studies in the law office of Judge Wolford and the Hon. Worthington Frothingham, until he was admitted to the Albany county bar. He was a member of the Albany Zouave Cadets, and served his full enlistment with this famous military organization. In politics he was a Republican, and at various times was importuned to accept nominations for public office; these overtures were always firmly declined. Yet, while refusing to act in an official capacity, Mr. Cran- nell labored earnestly and intelligently for all measures having for their purpose the improvement of the city of Albany. He was one of the projectors of the Hawk street viaduct, and when others lost courage, and sank into apathy at the seeming indifference of the citizens of Albany to the proposed improvement, or were silenced by the bitter attacks of those opposed to it, Mr. Crannell never faltered or wavered. He worked for three years combating wrong impressions, and forcing his views on the Legislature through representative speakers, until in June, 1888, he won his cause, and secured for the city what has proven to be one of the most appreciated improvements ever accomplished by Albanians. In testimony of his untiring efforts he was presented with a valuable watch and chain by grateful citizens, among whom were many of those who had opposed the construction of the viaduct. Mr. Crannell never married. He made his home with his brother, Mr. W. Winslow Crannell of Albany. He died suddenly April 26, 1893.

Crawford, Charles H., M. D., son of Isaac and Hannah (French) Crawford, the former a native of Scotland and the latter of Massachusetts and a descendant of John French of Revolutionary fame, was born March 17, 1851, and was graduated with the degree of A. B. from the Maryland University at Baltimore in 1873. He read medicine with the late Dr. Frank Hamilton in New York city for four years, taking lectures in ihe mean time at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He came to Albany in 1879 and entered the office of Drs. Swinburne and Balch, and graduated from the Albany Medical College in 1881; since then he has practiced his profession in Albany, giving special attention to diseases of women and children; his office is located at 218 Hudson avenue. He is energetic and a hard worker and enjoys a wide practice among the best people of the city and vicinity, and whose judgment is considered equal to any in his profession. He is a member of the Albany County Medical Society, Temple Lodge No. 14, F. & A. M.. Clinton Lodge No. T, I. O. O. F., Chancellor Lodge No. 58, K. P., and Clan Macfarlane No. 22, O. S. C.

Crawford, James F., has been a lawyer in active practice at Cohoes for half a century, coming here in 1849 after two years' practice in Albany. At the close of an academic course at Augusta, N. Y., where he was born in 1819, he began legal study in Oneida Castle, N. Y., with the late Timothy Jenkins, a lawyer of much prominence. After four years he came to Albany and resumed his studies with Edwin C. Litchfield, then district attorney of Albany county. He was admitted to the bar in 1846, and was very successful from the start. As a citizen of Cohoes he has been prominently identified with every interest which has tendered to develop its growth and prosperity. He is a Democrat in politics and was a member of the Legislature in 1866, when the first appropriation was made for the State Capitol.

Crookes, John, was born in Yorkshire, England, July 10, 1898. He was a son of William and Frances (Wardwell) Crookes, natives of the same place. They reared five children: John, Fannie, Sarah Ann, Elizabeth and Jane. The mother died in 1848. The father was a blacksmith, and in 1851 left England with his family and sailed for America, landing in New York one month later. He came direct to Albany, where he plied his trade for one year, when he removed to Tarrytown in New Scotland, and four years later to the village of Clarksville, where he spent his remaining days at his trade. While in England he was a member of the Odd Fellows fraternity. He died in 1867. John, when at the age of ten years, was obliged to enter his fathers shop as a helper. He has devoted his life successfully at his trade, and at the age of twenty-two entered his father's shop and has ever since done a general blacksmithing business on his own account. September 5, 1864, he enlisted in the 33d New York Independent Battery and was transferred to the 8th New York Heavy Artillery, and served until the close of the war. He participated in a good many battles and skirmishes. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Kerne Lodge No. 864. In 1860 he married Sarah Ingraham, daughter of Lyman Ingraham of New Scotland. Their children are Charles, who is employed in the State Capitol at Albany; Clara, wife of Benjamin Winston of New Scotland; John and Frank, twins; and Lizzie. All of his sons are blacksmiths. John is in Altamont, N. Y , and Frank is a blacksmith in the State Capitol.

Crounse, Beniamin, was born in the town of Guilderland, in 1839. He was a son of Nicholas, who was born in Guilderland in 1789. Nicholas was the youngest son of his father's family and came into possession of his father's homestead. His wife was Elizabeth Severson, and they had three sons and six daughters. Mr. Crounse died in his eighty-eighth year. His wife survived him about seven years and died in her eighty-fifth year. Mr. Crounse remained on the farm with his father until he was twenty-four years of age. He received a common school education, and in 1863 engaged as clerk in a store. Three years later he engaged for himself in the general mercantile business, which he followed until 1883. He then sold out his business and engaged in the fire insurance business, removing to Albany where he lived for five years. He still follows the fire insurance business, in connection with which he superintends his farm of 150 acres, eighty-six of which lies in the village corporation, Altamont. In 1890 he engaged as traveling salesman for the clothing house of Babcock, Shannon & Co., of Albany, with whom he is now. During the years 1885-87, he served his town as supervisor and was secretary and treasurer of the Guilderland Mutual Fire Insurance Co. for many years. In 1862 he married Miss Emma Keenholts, daughter of James Keenholts, and they have had six children: Allen J., died in 1885 at the age of twenty-one; Edgar, who is a teacher in the Albany Business College; Mimetta, wife of Dr. McHarg, of Albany; Eugene, who is employed by Babcock, Shannon & Co., as head bookkeeper; Milton, who is assistant bookkeeper and stenographer for the same firm; and Emma Marion.

Cull, William H., was born in Albany, August 24, 1853, and is a son of David and grandson of William Cull, who was born in the North of Ireland, 1800. He came to America in 1820, lived in Albany and Brandon, Vt., dying in the latter place in 1876. William married Letitia Campbell, of Scotch descent, who died in 1888, aged eighty-four. David Cull was born in Albany, became a well known telegraph operator, and married Helen M., daughter of James H. Young of Schenectady, N. Y., and died in 1860. William H. Cull attended the private and public schools of Albany and finished his education at the Albany Free Academy. When sixteen he entered the office of the Western Union Telegraph Company at Troy, N. Y., as a messenger boy. There he worked faithfully in various capacities, until the American District Messenger service of Albany was established in the fall of 1874. He was soon after appointed superintendent of the company and continued in the same capacity until January 1, 1877. A vacancy occurring about that time in the office of the Fire Alarm Telegraph office in Albany, Mr. Cull was appointed by Mayor Banks to a position in the department. He remained in the office of the Fire Alarm Telegraph Company until the 19th of May, 1383, when he was chosen superintendent and electrician of the Hudson River Telephone Company, a position which he filled till the 1st of February, 1890, when he was invited to take charge of the electrical department of the Albany Railway, of which he was speedily made superintendent. He had almost everything to do about starting the electrical railway service and ran the first motor cars on State street. On the expiration of his contract with the Albany Railway Company, May 1, 1891, Mr. Cull again became connected with the Hudson River Telephone Company as electrician, and on the 1st of January, 1893, he was appointed its general superintendent, a position he has since filled. Mr. Cull is a member of Temple Lodge and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He has also been a member of the Unconditional Republican Club since 1876 and was one of its charter members and first officers of the permanent organization; for the past five years he has been the treasurer of the club. He has always taken a very active interest in old Albany's welfare and has been an earnest and efficient worker on public celebrations and reception committees appointed by the different mayors. February 13, 1888, he married Miss Mary Estelle, daughterof the late James Sprinks of Albany.

Culver, Charles M., M. D., son of Cyrus L. and Mary (Bullock) Culver, was born in West Troy, N. Y., September 38, 1856. His father, a lumber merchant, was born in Sandy Hill, Washington county, March 29, 1824, came to West Troy in 1850 and now lives in Albany. Dr. Culver was educated in the public and high schools of Troy, and was graduated as B. A. from Union College in 1878; while there he was prominent in athletics and won several prizes. He received the degree of A. M. from Union College in 1881, read medicine in Schenectady and Albany with Dr. Thomas Featherstonhaugh (now medical referee in the Pension Department at Washmgton, D. C), and was graduated from the Albany Medical College in 1881. He then went to Europe and studied ophthalmology with Dr. Schweigger, general medicine with Dr. Frerichs, and general surgery with Dr. Langenbeck, in Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin. In 1882 he went to Paris and studied ophthalmology with Drs. Galezowski and Landolt, and later pursued the same study in Loudon, re- turning to America in 1883. He began the active practice of his profession in Al- bany, where he has since resided. His translations of Dr. E. Landolt's "Refraction and Accommodation of the Eye and Their Anomalies" was published in Edinburgh in 1886; of Landolt's "Cataract-Operation, in Our Time" in Nashville, Tenn., in 1892; and of Landolt's work on Strabismus is in course of publication in Phila- delphia, in the System of Ophthalmology to be edited by Drs. Norris and Oliver. Dr. Culver has written several articles which have been published in leading medical journals. He is ophthalmic surgeon to the Albany Orphan Asylum, member of the Ameritan Ophthalmological Society, the Medical Society of New York State and the Albany County Medical Society, historian of Philip Livingston Chapter, Sons of the Revolution, and a member through three ancestors, and a member of the Society of the Colonial Wars through four ancestors. May 10, 1887, he married Jessie, daughter of the late Joel Munsell of Albany, and they have two children: Cyrus L. 2d, and Mary.

Cummings Brothers. James and John Cummings were born in the town of Berne, June 25, 1857, and May 20, 1859, respectively. They are sons of John Cummings, who was born in the city of Clonmell, Ireland, in 1829. He was one of four children of Patrick Cummings. John, the father, was a miller in his native place. He came to America and direct to the town of Berne, where he engaged in farming which he continued until recent years, when he retired to the village of Reidsville and leased his farm. In 1864 he enlisted in Co. B, 81st Regiment N. V. Vols., and served until the close of the war, participating in the battle of the Wilderness, where he received a wound and lost part of his hand. He was under General Butler in five active engagements. His wife was Ellen Shea, a native of the city of Clonmell. Ireland, and daughter of Thomas Shea; to them were born five children: James, born June 25, 1857; John, born May 30, 1859; George, born June 1, 1861, and died at the age of nineteen; Ellen, born in October, 1862; and Thomas, born in December, 1866, and died at the age of sixteen. James and John were reared to farm life and attended the common schools and remained at home until they were twenty-four years of age, when they embarked in business for themselves, their first enterprise being farming and quarrying, which they followed for seven years. They dissolved partnership, James remaining at the quarry and John repaired to Albany and engaged in the stone business from 1891 to 1895. They then moved to Voorheesville and established themselves in the feed, grain and produce business, and in connection with this they carried on an extensive stone business. James married Ella Van Deusen of Berne, and daughter of Robert A. Van Deusen. Their children are Carrie and George. John married Mary C. Ecker of the town of Knox, and daughter of Allen Ecker, by whom three children were born: Thomas, who died when ten years of age; Edward and Mary. John is a member of the Knights of Pythias and of Chancellors Lodge of Albany. The brothers are both stockholders in the Clarksville Telephone line. John is a stockholder in the Altamont Driving Park and Fair Association; the brothers are also stockholders in the Voorheesville Canning and Preserving Co.

Curtis, Frederic C, M. D., born at Unionville, S. C. October 19, 1843, is of New- England parentage and a descendant in the seventh generation of Henry Curtis, who was born at Stratford-on-Avon, England, in 1621 and came to America in 1643, settling in Wethersfield, Conn. For three generations the family resided in Connecticut and subsequently removed to Stockbridge, Mass., where they have since lived. Rev. L. W. Curtis, father of Dr. Curtis, went South on account of his health when he was a young man and soon after settling in South Carolina was married to Elizabeth Colton, of Lenox, Mass. Two sons were born to them; The eldest, Frederic C. Curtis, passed his early days in South Carolina, but while a lad removed to Canaan, N. Y., and subsequently entered Beloit College, Wisconsin, from which he was graduated in 1866, and in 1869 was awarded the degree of M. A. In 1864 he entered the U. S. army as a private in the 41st Wisconsin Regiment, Co. B, which was chiefly composed of Beloit College students. After completing his college course, Dr. Curtis began the study of medicine at the University of Michigan and finished it at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York city, from which institution he received his degree of M. D. in 1870. He subsequently pursued his medical studies for a year in Vienna. In 1872 Dr. Curtis began the active practice of his profession in Albany, in partnership with Dr. W. A. Bailey. He also, the same year, became a member of the Medical Society of the County of Albany and was its secretary from 1873 to 1874 and its president in 1878. In 1888 he was elected by the County Society a delegate to the Medical Society of the State of New York, of which he became a permanent member in 1882. He was made its secretary in 1889 and still retains the office. In 1883 he became a member of the American Public Health Association. He was appointed physician to the Albany Hospital Dispensary in 1872, a member of the medical staff of St. Peter's Hospital in 1874, of the medical staff of Albany Hospital in 1876, lecturer in the summer course of the Albany Medical College in 1877 and professor of dermatology in the college in 1880. He is a trustee of the Albany Female Academy and of the Albany County Savings Bank, and a member of the Sons of the Revolution. In 1884 he married Charlotte E., daughter of Royal Bancroft of Albany. He has made a number of valuable contributions to current medical literature.

Cushman, Col. Harry C., is a lineal descendant of Robert Cushman of the Mayflower, in whose name the charter for Plymouth Colony was granted. Paul Cushman, Sr., who came to Albany from Vermont, was one of the first in America to engage in the pottery business, having an establishment near the site of the present Park Bank. He married Margaret McDonald, and their son, Paul, Jr., born in Albany, December 35, 1833, began his business career in the produce and commission business, which was finally discontinued. From 1853 to 1869 he was in partnership with his brother, Robert S., founding the present wholesale importing wine house, which he carried on until his death, June 3, 1895. He was a director in the Capital City Insurance Company, a trustee of the National Savings Bank, interested in railroads and other projects, a member of the Masonic order and a foundation member of the Fort Orange and old Albany Clubs. He married in 1845, Mary Jane, daughter of Capt. I. I. Taylor of Oswego, N. Y., who died in 1854, leaving two children. January 31, 1856, he married Julia A., C. Blackwell of Richmond, Va., who died September 5, 1885, leaving three children, of whom Harry C. is the eldest. Harry C. Cushman, born in Albany, July 31, 1857, was educated at the Albany Academy, and St. John's Military School at Sing Sing; he intended entering the University of Virginia, where his mother's family had usually attended, but the effects of an attack of the Roman fever prevented; after three years passed in traveling, his health being restored, he in 1881 organized and became secretary and treasurer of the Albany Pharmaceutical (now the Albany Chemical) Company. Three years later he withdrew and associated himself with his father, in 1885 became a partner and in 1895 succeeded to the business. He joined Co. A. 10th Regt. N. G. N. Y., February 10, 1870; was made aide-de-camp on Gen. R. S. Oliver's staff, 5th Brigade, January 31,1883, and was promoted assistant adjutant-general. 3d Brigade, January 8, 1801, a post he still holds. He is a member of Masters Lodge No. 5, F. & A. M., the Albany Institute, the Fort Orange Club, Albany Country Club, the Reform Club of New York and the Order of Founders and Patriots of America, and a director in the Park Bank and trustee of the National Savings Bank. June 26, 1890, he married Celia Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Sanderson of Milwaukee, Wis., and their children are Paul and Edward Sanderson.

Cutler, Edgar A., is the son of Martin L. Cutler, a native of Holliston, Mass., born in 1819; he came to Albany in 1847. Mr. Cutler comes of old New England stock; his great ancestor, John, came from Norfolk, Eng., in 1637, and settled at Higham, Mass.; he seems to have been a man of vigorous parts, with a mind of his own, for he early engaged in the religious controversies which form an essential ingredient in Puritan life, and suffered in consequence. Simeon, another ancestor, served with distinction in the Revolutionary war; he joined Washington at Boston, and remained with the army during its eight years of defeat and victory, and retired with a colonels commission. Mr. Cutler, Sr., was engaged in the wholesale and retail millinery business at the time of his death, March 15, 1890; he was also trustee of the National Exchange Savings Bank, and prominent in the business circles of Albany. He married Maria A. Salisbury of Albany, who survives him; they had two sons, Walter S. of San Francisco, and Edgar A., born in Albany, November 13, 1858. He was educated in the Albany Academy, and when eighteen entered his father's store, where he remained as salesman until 1890, when he succeeded to the business. He is one of the leading wholesale and retail milliners of Albany. The business, which has been located at Nos. 540-546 Broadway since 1847, is the oldest of the kind in the State outside of New York, and one of the oldest in the country.

Cuyler, Edward Cornelius, son of Jacob C. and Mary Elizabeth (Henley) Cuyler, was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1859. He attended the Albany Academy, from which he was graduated in 1878, after which he took a course at Yale University and was graduated in 1883, receiving the degree of A. B. Mr. Cuyler has followed the profession of the newspaper man and has been connected with the Express as city editor under William Barnes, Jr., and Walter F. Hurcomb; with the State; and the Times-Union under the late Ira Wales. For the past eight years he has been special correspondent for the New York Evening Post and various other papers throughout the country. In 1883 he married Clarinda Helene Busley, and they have two daughters, Elizabeth and Kathryn.

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